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      Endogenous hydrogen sulfide is associated with angiotensin II type 1 receptor in a rat model of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrosis


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          The present study aimed to investigate the effects of endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) on the expression levels of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1) in a rat model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4)-induced hepatic fibrosis. A total of 56 Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: Normal control group, model group, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) group, and DL-propargylglycine (PAG) group. Hepatic fibrosis was induced by CCl 4. The rats in the PAG group were intraperitoneally injected with PAG, an inhibitor of cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE). The rats in the NaHS group were intraperitoneally injected with NaHS. An equal volume of saline solution was intraperitoneally injected into both the control and model groups. All rats were sacrificed at week three or four following treatment. The serum levels of hyaluronidase (HA), laminin protein (LN), procollagen III (PcIII), and collagen IV (cIV) were detected using ELISA. The serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and albumin (ALB) were detected using an automatic biochemical analyzer. The liver mRNA expression levels of CSE were detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The liver expression levels of AGTR1 and the plasma expression levels of H 2S were detected using western blot analyses. The results indicated that the severity of hepatic fibrosis, the serum expression levels of HA, LN, PcIII, cIV, ALT, and AST, the liver expression levels of CSE and AGTR1, and the plasma expression levels of H 2S were significantly higher in the PAG group, as compared with the model group (P<0.05). Conversely, the expression levels of ALB were significantly lower in the PAG group, as compared with the model group. In addition, the severity of hepatic fibrosis, the serum expression levels of HA, LN, PcIII, cIV, ALT, and AST, the liver expression levels of CSE and AGTR1, and the plasma expression levels of H 2S were significantly lower in the NaHS group, as compared with the model group (P<0.05). These results suggest that endogenous H 2S is associated with CCl 4-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats, and may exhibit anti-fibrotic effects. Furthermore, H 2S reduced the liver expression levels of AGTR1, which may be associated with the delayed progression of hepatic fibrosis.

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          The vasorelaxant effect of H(2)S as a novel endogenous gaseous K(ATP) channel opener.

          Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) has been traditionally viewed as a toxic gas. It is also, however, endogenously generated from cysteine metabolism. We attempted to assess the physiological role of H(2)S in the regulation of vascular contractility, the modulation of H(2)S production in vascular tissues, and the underlying mechanisms. Intravenous bolus injection of H(2)S transiently decreased blood pressure of rats by 12- 30 mmHg, which was antagonized by prior blockade of K(ATP) channels. H(2)S relaxed rat aortic tissues in vitro in a K(ATP) channel-dependent manner. In isolated vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), H(2)S directly increased K(ATP) channel currents and hyperpolarized membrane. The expression of H(2)S-generating enzyme was identified in vascular SMCs, but not in endothelium. The endogenous production of H(2)S from different vascular tissues was also directly measured with the abundant level in the order of tail artery, aorta and mesenteric artery. Most importantly, H(2)S production from vascular tissues was enhanced by nitric oxide. Our results demonstrate that H(2)S is an important endogenous vasoactive factor and the first identified gaseous opener of K(ATP) channels in vascular SMCs.
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            Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: definition and pathology.

            Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a significant form of chronic liver disease in adults and children. The natural history of NASH ranges from indolent to end-stage liver disease. Current studies are focusing on identification of histologic and/or clinical markers of progression. NASH may be an underlying cause of cryptogenic cirrhosis, and the lesions of NASH may recur in allograft livers. An expanding array of clinical conditions and pathogenetic mechanisms have been identified, but many cases remain "idiopathic"; lack of significant alcohol use is, by definition, common to all cases. Neither clinical evaluation nor laboratory values can ensure either the diagnosis or the exclusion of NASH, and liver biopsy interpretation continues to be considered the "gold standard" for diagnosis. The lesions in NASH are similar but not identical to those of alcoholic steatohepatitis; exact, specific histologic criteria for the diagnosis are currently under discussion. The lesions most commonly accepted for NASH include steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning degeneration, mild diffuse lobular mixed acute and chronic inflammation, and perivenular, perisinusoidal collagen deposition. Zone 3 accentuation may be detected. Mallory's hyaline, vacuolated nuclei in periportal hepatocytes, lobular lipogranulomas, and PAS-diastase-resistant Kupffer cells are common. In biopsy specimens from children, portal inflammation may be more prominent than in adults. Progression of fibrosis may result in bridging septa and cirrhosis. The lesions of steatohepatitis may be noted concurrently with other forms of chronic liver disease. A histological "grading and staging" system has been developed to reflect the unique features of steatohepatitis, gradations of severity and fibrosis, and to promote uniform reporting of the histopathology.
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              The third gas: H2S regulates perfusion pressure in both the isolated and perfused normal rat liver and in cirrhosis.

              The regulation of sinusoidal resistance is dependent on the contraction of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) around sinusoidal endothelial cell (SEC) through paracrine cross-talk of vasoconstrictor and vasodilator agents. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a recently discovered gas neurotransmitter, is a putative vasodilator whose role in hepatic vascular regulation and portal hypertension is unexplored. Four-week bile duct-ligated (BDL) rats with cirrhosis and control rats were treated daily with NaHS (56 micromol/kg) for 5 days. Isolated livers were perfused first with NaHS for 20 minutes and then with norepinephrine (NE) and the intrahepatic resistance studied. In normal rats and animals with cirrhosis, administration of NE resulted in a dose-dependent increase of portal pressure. This effect was attenuated by H2S treatment (P < .05). The H2S-induced relaxation of hepatic microcirculation was attenuated by glibenclamide, an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive K+ channel inhibitor. L-Cysteine, a substrate of cystathionine-gamma-lyase (CSE), decreased vasoconstriction in normal rat livers (P < .05) but failed to do so in livers with cirrhosis. BDL resulted in a downregulation of CSE mRNA/protein levels and activity (P < .05). Our in vitro data demonstrate that CSE is expressed in hepatocytes, HSCs, but not in sinusoidal endothelial cells (SEC). HSC activation downregulates CSE mRNA expression, resulting in a defective production of H2S and abrogation of relaxation induced by L-cysteine. In conclusion, CSE-derived H2S is involved in the maintenance of portal venous pressure. The reduction of CSE expression in the liver with cirrhosis contributes to the development of increased intrahepatic resistance and portal hypertension.

                Author and article information

                Mol Med Rep
                Mol Med Rep
                Molecular Medicine Reports
                D.A. Spandidos
                September 2015
                02 June 2015
                02 June 2015
                : 12
                : 3
                : 3351-3358
                Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Jiaotong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai 200233, P.R. China
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Mr. Ni-Wei Chen, Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Jiaotong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, 600 Yishan Road, Shanghai 200233, P.R. China, E-mail: chenniwei@ 123456163.com
                Copyright © 2015, Spandidos Publications

                This is an open-access article licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. The article may be redistributed, reproduced, and reused for non-commercial purposes, provided the original source is properly cited.

                : 18 June 2014
                : 06 May 2015

                dl-propargylglycine,sodium hydrosulfide,carbon tetrachloride,hepatic fibrosis,angiotensin ii type 1,hydrogen sulfide,cystathionine-β-synthase


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