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      Of mice and not men: differences between mouse and human immunology.

      1 ,

      Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)

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          Abstract

          Mice are the experimental tool of choice for the majority of immunologists and the study of their immune responses has yielded tremendous insight into the workings of the human immune system. However, as 65 million years of evolution might suggest, there are significant differences. Here we outline known discrepancies in both innate and adaptive immunity, including: balance of leukocyte subsets, defensins, Toll receptors, inducible NO synthase, the NK inhibitory receptor families Ly49 and KIR, FcR, Ig subsets, the B cell (BLNK, Btk, and lambda5) and T cell (ZAP70 and common gamma-chain) signaling pathway components, Thy-1, gammadelta T cells, cytokines and cytokine receptors, Th1/Th2 differentiation, costimulatory molecule expression and function, Ag-presenting function of endothelial cells, and chemokine and chemokine receptor expression. We also provide examples, such as multiple sclerosis and delayed-type hypersensitivity, where complex multicomponent processes differ. Such differences should be taken into account when using mice as preclinical models of human disease.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          J. Immunol.
          Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
          0022-1767
          0022-1767
          Mar 01 2004
          : 172
          : 5
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Center for Immunology and Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697.
          Article
          14978070

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