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Contamination index. A novel parameter for metal and pesticide analyses in maternal blood and umbilical cord

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      Abstract

      ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluate the contamination index of metals and pesticides in pregnant women, and to relate this to perinatal outcomes. METHODS: Descriptive, retrospective, exploratory study, developed from existing secondary data analyses at Level III maternity center. A total of 40 mothers with their newborns (NB), living in a rural area in Botucatu- Brazil and surrounding region. Blood samples from mothers and newborn were collected to determine the total contamination index for metals and pesticides. The concentrations of each metal and each pesticide were determined in blood samples of mothers and their newborns by Rudge's results. After obtaining these concentrations, the total contamination index in mother and NB was calculated, along with its correlation with clinical parameters of NB. RESULTS: There was no correlation (p> 0.05) between maternal contamination index with NB clinical parameters, and NB contamination index versus NB clinical parameters. CONCLUSION: The maternal contamination index of metals and pesticides was not related to perinatal outcomes, but it could be used as baseline parameter in future toxicological studies, regarding to long-term toxic characteristics as persistent organic pollutants, its long half-lives, bioacumulative, and expected to impose serious health effects on humans.

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      Most cited references 29

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      Effects of in utero exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and related contaminants on cognitive functioning in young children

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        Selenium, cadmium, lead, and mercury concentrations in human breast milk, in placenta, maternal blood, and the blood of the newborn

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          Evolution of factors affecting placental oxygen transfer.

           A.M. Carter (2009)
          A review is given of the factors determining placental oxygen transfer and the oxygen supply to the fetus. In the case of continuous variables, such as the rate of placental blood flow, it is not possible to trace evolutionary trends. Discontinuous variables, for which we can define character states, are more amenable to analysis. This is exemplified by factors contributing, respectively, to blood oxygen affinity and placental diffusing capacity. Comparative genomics has given fresh insight into the evolution of the beta-globin gene complex. In higher primates, duplication of an embryonic gene yielded HBG-T2, a gene that is expressed in the fetus and confers high oxygen affinity on its haemoglobin. A separate event in ruminants involved duplication of an adult gene, again resulting in a fetally expressed variant (HBB-T3) that conveys high oxygen affinity. In rodents and lagomorphs, where fetal and adult haemoglobin are not different, developmental regulation of 2, 3-diphosphoglycerate ensures the high oxygen affinity of fetal blood. Oxygen diffusing capacity is dependent on diffusion distance, which may vary with the type of interhaemal barrier. It has been shown that epitheliochorial placentation is a derived state and that the common ancestor of placental mammals probably had a placenta of the endotheliochorial type. Where evolutionary trends are implied for mammals as a whole or within orders such as primates they often accompany a switch in reproductive strategy that is manifested in a change of newborn state from poorly developed (altricial) to well developed (precocial).
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ] Universidade Estadual Paulista Brazil
            [2 ] Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso Brazil
            [3 ] Universidade Estadual Paulista Brazil
            [4 ] Universidade Estadual Paulista Brazil
            [5 ] Universidade Estadual Paulista Brazil
            [6 ] Universidade Estadual Paulista Brazil
            [7 ] Universidade Estadual Paulista Brazil
            [8 ] Universidade Estadual Paulista Brazil
            [9 ] The Arctic University of Norway Norway
            [10 ] Universidade Estadual Paulista Brazil
            Contributors
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            Journal
            acb
            Acta Cirurgica Brasileira
            Acta Cir. Bras.
            Sociedade Brasileira para o Desenvolvimento da Pesquisa em Cirurgia
            1678-2674
            July 2016
            : 31
            : 7
            : 490-497
            S0102-86502016000700490
            10.1590/S0102-865020160070000010

            This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

            Product
            Product Information: SciELO Brazil
            Categories
            SURGERY

            Surgery

            Pregnancy, Pesticides, Metals, Contamination

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