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      Acroframosome-Dependent KIFC1 Facilitates Acrosome Formation during Spermatogenesis in the Caridean Shrimp Exopalaemon modestus

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          Abstract

          Background

          Acrosome formation and nuclear shaping are the main events in spermatogenesis. During spermiogenesis in Exopalaemon modestus, a unique microtubular structure called the acroframosome (AFS) forms in spermatids. The AFS links to a temporary organelle called the lamellar complex (LCx) leading to the formation of an everted umbrella-shaped acrosome and a dish-shaped nucleus in the mature sperm. These morphological changes require complex cell motility in which the C-terminal kinesin motor protein called KIFC1 is involved. In this study, we demonstrate that KIFC1 moves along the AFS and plays an important role in acrosome formation and nuclear shaping during spermatogenesis in E. modestus.

          Methodology/Principal Findings

          We cloned a 3125 bp complete cDNA of kifc1 from the testis of E. modestus by PCR. The predicted secondary and tertiary structures of E. modestus KIFC1 contain three domains: a) the C-terminus, b) the stalk region, and the c) N-terminusl. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR detected the expression of kifc1 mRNA in different tissues of E. modestus. In situ hybridization demonstrated the temporal and spatial expression profile of kifc1 during spermiogenesis. Western blot identified the expression of KIFC1 in different tissues of E. modestus, including the testis. Immunofluorescence localized KIFC1, tubulin, GM130, and mitochondria in order to elucidate their role during spermiogenesis in E. modestus.

          Conclusion/Significance

          Our results indicate that KIFC1 transports the Golgi complex, mitochondria, and other cellular components that results in acrosome formation and nuclear shaping in E. modestus. The KIFC1 transport function depends upon the microtubular structure called the acroframosome (AFS). This study describes some of the molecular mechanisms involved in the acrosome formation and nuclear shaping in E. modestus. In addition, this study may provide a model for studying the molecular mechanisms involved in spermatogenesis in other crustacean species and lead to a better understanding of the fertilization process in crustaceans.

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          Most cited references 38

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          Kinesin superfamily motor protein KIF17 and mLin-10 in NMDA receptor-containing vesicle transport.

          Experiments with vesicles containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor 2B (NR2B subunit) show that they are transported along microtubules by KIF17, a neuron-specific molecular motor in neuronal dendrites. Selective transport is accomplished by direct interaction of the KIF17 tail with a PDZ domain of mLin-10 (Mint1/X11), which is a constituent of a large protein complex including mLin-2 (CASK), mLin-7 (MALS/Velis), and the NR2B subunit. This interaction, specific for a neurotransmitter receptor critically important for plasticity in the postsynaptic terminal, may be a regulatory point for synaptic plasticity and neuronal morphogenesis.
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            Cytoplasmic dynein-dependent vesicular transport from early to late endosomes [published erratum appears in J Cell Biol 1994 Feb;124(3):397]

            We have used an in vitro fusion assay to study the mechanisms of transport from early to late endosomes. Our data show that the late endosomes share with the early endosomes a high capacity to undergo homotypic fusion in vitro. However, direct fusion of early with late endosomes does not occur. We have purified vesicles which are intermediates during transport from early to late endosomes in vivo, and analyzed their protein composition in two-dimensional gels. In contrast to either early or late endosomes, these vesicles do not appear to contain unique proteins. Moreover, these vesicles undergo fusion with late endosomes in vitro, but not with each other or back with early endosomes. In vitro, fusion of these endosomal vesicles with late endosomes is stimulated by polymerized microtubules, consistent with the known role of microtubules during early to late endosome transport in vivo. In contrast, homotypic fusion of early or late endosomes is microtubule-independent. Finally, this stimulation by microtubules depends on microtubule-associated proteins and requires the presence of the minus-end directed motor cytoplasmic dynein, but not the plus-end directed motor kinesin, in agreement with the microtubule organization in vivo. Our data strongly suggest that early and late endosomes are separate, highly dynamic organelles, which are connected by a microtubule-dependent vesicular transport step.
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              Identification of an axonal kinesin-3 motor for fast anterograde vesicle transport that facilitates retrograde transport of neuropeptides.

              A screen for genes required in Drosophila eye development identified an UNC-104/Kif1 related kinesin-3 microtubule motor. Analysis of mutants suggested that Drosophila Unc-104 has neuronal functions that are distinct from those of the classic anterograde axonal motor, kinesin-1. In particular, unc-104 mutations did not cause the distal paralysis and focal axonal swellings characteristic of kinesin-1 (Khc) mutations. However, like Khc mutations, unc-104 mutations caused motoneuron terminal atrophy. The distributions and transport behaviors of green fluorescent protein-tagged organelles in motor axons indicate that Unc-104 is a major contributor to the anterograde fast transport of neuropeptide-filled vesicles, that it also contributes to anterograde transport of synaptotagmin-bearing vesicles, and that it contributes little or nothing to anterograde transport of mitochondria, which are transported primarily by Khc. Remarkably, unc-104 mutations inhibited retrograde runs by neurosecretory vesicles but not by the other two organelles. This suggests that Unc-104, a member of an anterograde kinesin subfamily, contributes to an organelle-specific dynein-driven retrograde transport mechanism.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1932-6203
                2013
                30 September 2013
                : 8
                : 9
                Affiliations
                The Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China
                University of South Florida College of Medicine, United States of America
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: CCH WXY. Performed the experiments: CCH. Analyzed the data: CCH WXY. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: WXY. Wrote the paper: CCH.

                Article
                PONE-D-13-28954
                10.1371/journal.pone.0076065
                3786892

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Pages: 16
                Funding
                This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41276151 and 31072198). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
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                Research Article

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