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      Raw Materials Synthesis from Heavy Metal Industry Effluents with Bioremediation and Phytomining: A Biomimetic Resource Management Approach

      1 , 2 , 1 , 1 , 3

      Advances in Materials Science and Engineering

      Hindawi Limited

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          Abstract

          Heavy metal wastewater poses a threat to human life and causes significant environmental problems. Bioremediation provides a sustainable waste management technique that uses organisms to remove heavy metals from contaminated water through a variety of different processes. Biosorption involves the use of biomass, such as plant extracts and microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, algae, yeast), and represents a low-cost and environmentally friendly method of bioremediation and resource management. Biosorption-based biosynthesis is proposed as a means of removing heavy metals from wastewaters and soils as it aids the development of heavy metal nanoparticles that may have an application within the technology industry. Phytomining provides a further green method of managing the metal content of wastewater. These approaches represent a viable means of removing toxic chemicals from the effluent produced during the process of manufacturing, and the bioremediation process, furthermore, has the potential to save metal resources from depletion. Biomimetic resource management comprises bioremediation, biosorption, biosynthesis, phytomining, and further methods that provide innovative ways of interpreting waste and pollutants as raw materials for research and industry, inspired by materials, structures, and processes in living nature.

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          Most cited references 157

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          Biosorption of heavy metals.

           B Volesky,  Z R Holan (2015)
          Only within the past decade has the potential of metal biosorption by biomass materials been well established. For economic reasons, of particular interest are abundant biomass types generated as a waste byproduct of large-scale industrial fermentations or certain metal-binding algae found in large quantities in the sea. These biomass types serve as a basis for newly developed metal biosorption processes foreseen particularly as a very competitive means for the detoxification of metal-bearing industrial effluents. The assessment of the metal-binding capacity of some new biosorbents is discussed. Lead and cadmium, for instance, have been effectively removed from very dilute solutions by the dried biomass of some ubiquitous species of brown marine algae such as Ascophyllum and Sargassum, which accumulate more than 30% of biomass dry weight in the metal. Mycelia of the industrial steroid-transforming fungi Rhizopus and Absidia are excellent biosorbents for lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and uranium and also bind other heavy metals up to 25% of the biomass dry weight. Biosorption isotherm curves, derived from equilibrium batch sorption experiments, are used in the evaluation of metal uptake by different biosorbents. Further studies are focusing on the assessment of biosorbent performance in dynamic continuous-flow sorption systems. In the course of this work, new methodologies are being developed that are aimed at mathematical modeling of biosorption systems and their effective optimization. Elucidation of mechanisms active in metal biosorption is essential for successful exploitation of the phenomenon and for regeneration of biosorbent materials in multiple reuse cycles. The complex nature of biosorbent materials makes this task particularly challenging. Discussion focuses on the composition of marine algae polysaccharide structures, which seem instrumental in metal uptake and binding. The state of the art in the field of biosorption is reviewed in this article, with many references to recent reviews and key individual contributions.
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            Metals, minerals and microbes: geomicrobiology and bioremediation.

             G M Gadd (2010)
            Microbes play key geoactive roles in the biosphere, particularly in the areas of element biotransformations and biogeochemical cycling, metal and mineral transformations, decomposition, bioweathering, and soil and sediment formation. All kinds of microbes, including prokaryotes and eukaryotes and their symbiotic associations with each other and 'higher organisms', can contribute actively to geological phenomena, and central to many such geomicrobial processes are transformations of metals and minerals. Microbes have a variety of properties that can effect changes in metal speciation, toxicity and mobility, as well as mineral formation or mineral dissolution or deterioration. Such mechanisms are important components of natural biogeochemical cycles for metals as well as associated elements in biomass, soil, rocks and minerals, e.g. sulfur and phosphorus, and metalloids, actinides and metal radionuclides. Apart from being important in natural biosphere processes, metal and mineral transformations can have beneficial or detrimental consequences in a human context. Bioremediation is the application of biological systems to the clean-up of organic and inorganic pollution, with bacteria and fungi being the most important organisms for reclamation, immobilization or detoxification of metallic and radionuclide pollutants. Some biominerals or metallic elements deposited by microbes have catalytic and other properties in nanoparticle, crystalline or colloidal forms, and these are relevant to the development of novel biomaterials for technological and antimicrobial purposes. On the negative side, metal and mineral transformations by microbes may result in spoilage and destruction of natural and synthetic materials, rock and mineral-based building materials (e.g. concrete), acid mine drainage and associated metal pollution, biocorrosion of metals, alloys and related substances, and adverse effects on radionuclide speciation, mobility and containment, all with immense social and economic consequences. The ubiquity and importance of microbes in biosphere processes make geomicrobiology one of the most important concepts within microbiology, and one requiring an interdisciplinary approach to define environmental and applied significance and underpin exploitation in biotechnology.
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              Low-cost adsorbents for heavy metals uptake from contaminated water: a review.

              In this article, the technical feasibility of various low-cost adsorbents for heavy metal removal from contaminated water has been reviewed. Instead of using commercial activated carbon, researchers have worked on inexpensive materials, such as chitosan, zeolites, and other adsorbents, which have high adsorption capacity and are locally available. The results of their removal performance are compared to that of activated carbon and are presented in this study. It is evident from our literature survey of about 100 papers that low-cost adsorbents have demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for certain metal ions as compared to activated carbon. Adsorbents that stand out for high adsorption capacities are chitosan (815, 273, 250 mg/g of Hg(2+), Cr(6+), and Cd(2+), respectively), zeolites (175 and 137 mg/g of Pb(2+) and Cd(2+), respectively), waste slurry (1030, 560, 540 mg/g of Pb(2+), Hg(2+), and Cr(6+), respectively), and lignin (1865 mg/g of Pb(2+)). These adsorbents are suitable for inorganic effluent treatment containing the metal ions mentioned previously. It is important to note that the adsorption capacities of the adsorbents presented in this paper vary, depending on the characteristics of the individual adsorbent, the extent of chemical modifications, and the concentration of adsorbate.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Advances in Materials Science and Engineering
                Advances in Materials Science and Engineering
                Hindawi Limited
                1687-8434
                1687-8442
                2015
                2015
                : 2015
                : 1-21
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Malaysia
                [2 ]Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
                [3 ]Institute of Applied Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstraße 8-10/134, 1040 Vienna, Austria
                Article
                10.1155/2015/185071
                © 2015

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