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The sialotranscriptome of Amblyomma triste, Amblyomma parvum and Amblyomma cajennense ticks, uncovered by 454-based RNA-seq

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      Abstract

      Background

      Tick salivary constituents antagonize inflammatory, immune and hemostatic host responses, favoring tick blood feeding and the establishment of tick-borne pathogens in hosts during hematophagy. Amblyomma triste, A. cajennense and A. parvum ticks are very important in veterinary and human health because they are vectors of the etiological agents for several diseases. Insights into the tick salivary components involved in blood feeding are essential to understanding vector-pathogen-host interactions, and transcriptional profiling of salivary glands is a powerful tool to do so. Here, we functionally annotated the sialotranscriptomes of these three Amblyomma species, which allowed comparisons between these and other hematophagous arthropod species.

      Methods

      mRNA from the salivary glands of A. triste, A. cajennense and A. parvum ticks fed on different host species were pyrosequenced on a 454-Roche platform to generate four A. triste (nymphs fed on guinea pigs and females fed on dogs) libraries, one A. cajennense (females fed on rabbits) library and one was A. parvum (females fed on dogs) library. Bioinformatic analyses used in-house programs with a customized pipeline employing standard assembly and alignment algorithms, protein databases and protein servers.

      Results

      Each library yielded an average of 100,000 reads, which were assembled to obtain contigs of coding sequences (CDSs). The sialotranscriptome analyses of A. triste, A. cajennense and A. parvum ticks produced 11,240, 4,604 and 3,796 CDSs, respectively. These CDSs were classified into over 100 distinct protein families with a wide range of putative functions involved in physiological and blood feeding processes and were catalogued in annotated, hyperlinked spreadsheets. We highlighted the putative transcripts encoding saliva components with critical roles during parasitism, such as anticoagulants, immunosuppressants and anti-inflammatory molecules. The salivary content underwent changes in the abundance and repertoire of many transcripts, which depended on the tick and host species.

      Conclusions

      The annotated sialotranscriptomes described herein richly expand the biological knowledge of these three Amblyomma species. These comprehensive databases will be useful for the characterization of salivary proteins and can be applied to control ticks and tick-borne diseases.

      Electronic supplementary material

      The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1756-3305-7-430) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [ ]Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Ribeirão Preto School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP Brazil
            [ ]Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD USA
            [ ]Department of Maternal and Child and Public Health Nursing, Ribeirão Preto School of Nursing, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP Brazil
            [ ]Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Federal University of Viçosa, Viçosa, MG Brazil
            [ ]School of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Uberlândia, Uberlândia, MG Brazil
            Contributors
            gugarg10@usp.br
            gustavogardinassi@usp.br
            jribeiro@niaid.nih.gov
            elen@usp.br
            brferrei@usp.br
            higo.moreira@ufv.br
            mafra@ufv.br
            m06martins@yahoo.com.br
            szabo@famev.ufu.br
            imsantos@fmrp.usp.br
            srmaruyama@gmail.com
            Journal
            Parasit Vectors
            Parasit Vectors
            Parasites & Vectors
            BioMed Central (London )
            1756-3305
            8 September 2014
            8 September 2014
            2014
            : 7
            : 1
            25201527
            4261526
            1606
            10.1186/1756-3305-7-430
            © Garcia et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014

            This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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            © The Author(s) 2014

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