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      Experimental Study on the Role of Apelin-13 in Alleviating Spinal Cord Ischemia Reperfusion Injury Through Suppressing Autophagy

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          Abstract

          Background

          This study aimed to explore the effect of Apelin-13 in protecting rats against spinal cord ischemia reperfusion injury (SCIR), as well as the related molecular mechanisms.

          Methods

          One week prior to the experiment, experimental Sprague–Dawley rats were injected with Apelin-13 and the autophagy activator rapamycin through the tail vein once a day for 7 consecutive days. The SCIR rat model was prepared through the abdominal aorta clamping method. At 72 h after injury, the spinal cord tissue water content, infarct volume, and normal neuron count were determined to evaluate the degree of spinal cord tissue injury in the rats. The Basso–Beattie–Bresnahan scoring standard was adopted for functional scoring of the rat hind leg, to reflect the post-injury motor function. At 72 h after injury, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, reactive oxygen species content, and mitochondrial ATP were detected. ELISA was carried out to detect the malonaldehyde content, as well as catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione catalase activities in spinal cord tissues at 72 h after injury. Quantitative chemistry was conducted to examine the contents of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in spinal cord tissues. Finally, the expression of autophagy-related proteins, Beclin1, ATG5, and LC3, in spinal cord tissues was detected through the Western blotting assay.

          Results

          Apelin-13 pretreatment alleviated SCIR, promoted motor function recovery, suppressed mitochondrial dysfunction, resisted oxidative stress, and inhibited autophagy in spinal cord tissues following ischemia reperfusion injury.

          Conclusion

          Apelin-3 exerts protection against SCIR by suppressing autophagy.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 25

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          Vascular nitric oxide: Beyond eNOS.

          As the first discovered gaseous signaling molecule, nitric oxide (NO) affects a number of cellular processes, including those involving vascular cells. This brief review summarizes the contribution of NO to the regulation of vascular tone and its sources in the blood vessel wall. NO regulates the degree of contraction of vascular smooth muscle cells mainly by stimulating soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) to produce cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), although cGMP-independent signaling [S-nitrosylation of target proteins, activation of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) or production of cyclic inosine monophosphate (cIMP)] also can be involved. In the blood vessel wall, NO is produced mainly from l-arginine by the enzyme endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) but it can also be released non-enzymatically from S-nitrosothiols or from nitrate/nitrite. Dysfunction in the production and/or the bioavailability of NO characterizes endothelial dysfunction, which is associated with cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and atherosclerosis.
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            Glutathione peroxidase family - an evolutionary overview.

            Glutathione peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.9 and EC 1.11.1.12) catalyze the reduction of H(2)O(2) or organic hydroperoxides to water or corresponding alcohols using reduced glutathione. Some glutathione peroxidase isozymes have a selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity and present a selenocysteine encoded by the opal TGA codon. In the present study, insights into the evolution of the whole glutathione peroxidase gene family were obtained after a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis using the improved number of glutathione peroxidase sequences recorded in the PeroxiBase database (http://peroxidase.isb-sib.ch/index.php). The identification of a common ancestral origin for the diverse glutathione peroxidase clusters was not possible. The complex relationships and evolutionary rates of this gene family suggest that basal glutathione peroxidase classes, present in all kingdoms, have originated from independent evolutionary events such as gene duplication, gene losses, lateral gene transfer among invertebrates and vertebrates or plants. In addition, the present study also emphasizes the possibility of some members being submitted to strong selective forces that probably dictated functional convergences of taxonomically distant groups.
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              Autophagy reduces neuronal damage and promotes locomotor recovery via inhibition of apoptosis after spinal cord injury in rats.

              Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic mechanism that maintains the balance of proteins, lipids and aging organelles. 3-Methyladenine (3-MA) is a selective inhibitor of autophagy, whereas rapamycin, an antifungal agent, is a specific inducer of autophagy, inhibiting the protein mammalian target of rapamycin. In the present study, we examined the role of autophagy, inhibited by 3-MA and enhanced by rapamycin, in a model of acute spinal cord injury in rats. We found that rapamycin could significantly increase the expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and Beclin1 at the injury site. At the same time, the number of neurons and astrocytes with LC3 positive in the spinal cord was upregulated with time. In addition, administration of rapamycin produced an increase in the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scores of injured rats, indicating high recovery of locomotor function. Furthermore, expression of the proteins Bcl-2 and Bax was upregulated and downregulated, respectively. By contrast, the results for rats treated with 3-MA, which inhibits autophagy, were the opposite of those seen with the rapamycin-treated rats. These results show that induction of autophagy can produce neuroprotective effects in acute spinal cord injury in rats via inhibition of apoptosis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                DDDT
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                22 April 2020
                2020
                : 14
                : 1571-1581
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Orthopedics, Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University , Changsha, Hunan 410013, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Zhiyue Li Department of Orthopedics, Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University , Changsha, Hunan410013, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +861378731 8116 Email oirieqnoh@sina.com
                Article
                241066
                10.2147/DDDT.S241066
                7183780
                © 2020 Xu and Li.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 3, References: 27, Pages: 11
                Categories
                Original Research

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