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      Impact of rehabilitation on mortality and readmissions after surgery for hip fracture

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          Hip fracture in elderly patients is a rising global public health concern because of population ageing, and increasing frailty. Long-term morbidity related to poor management of hip fracture is associated with decreased quality of life, survival, and increase in healthcare costs. Receiving postoperative rehabilitation is associated with better outcomes and a higher likelihood of returning to pre-existing level of functioning. However little is known about which postoperative rehabilitation pathways are more effective to optimize patient outcomes. Few studies have analyzed postoperative rehabilitation pathways in a universal healthcare system. The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of post-acute rehabilitation pathways on mortality and readmission in elderly patients undergoing surgery for hip fracture in a large metropolitan area in Italy.


          In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed 6-month mortality from admission and 6-month readmission after hospital discharge in patients who underwent surgical repair for hip fracture in the hospitals of the Bologna metropolitan area between 1.1.2013 and 30.6.2014. Data were drawn from the regional hospital discharge records database. Kaplan-Meier estimates and multiple Cox regression were used to analyze mortality as a function of rehabilitation pathways. Multiple logistic regression determined predictors of readmission.


          The study population includes 2208 patients, mostly women ( n = 1677, 76%), with a median age of 83.8 years. Hospital rehabilitation was provided to 519 patients (23.5%), 907 (41.1%) received rehabilitation in private inpatient rehabilitation facilities (IRF) accredited by the National Health System, and 782 (35.4%) received no post-acute rehabilitation. Compared with patient receiving hospital rehabilitation, the other groups showed significantly higher mortality risks (no rehabilitation, Hazard Ratio (HR) = 2.19, 95%CI = 1.54–3.12, p < 0.001; IRF rehabilitation, HR = 1.66, 95%CI = 1.54–1.79, p < 0.001). The risk of readmission did not differ significantly among rehabilitation pathways.


          Intensive hospital rehabilitation was significantly associated with a lower risk of mortality compared to IRF rehabilitation and no rehabilitation. Our results may help in the development of evidence-based recommendations aimed to improve resource utilization and quality of care in hip fracture patients. Further research is warranted to investigate the impact of the rehabilitation pathway on other outcomes, such as patients’ functional status and quality of life.

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          Estimating hip fracture morbidity, mortality and costs.

          To estimate lifetime morbidity, mortality, and costs from hip fracture incorporating the effect of deficits in activities of daily living. Markov computer cohort simulation considering short- and long-term outcomes attributable to hip fractures. Data estimates were based on published literature, and costs were based primarily on Medicare reimbursement rates. Postacute hospital facility. Eighty-year-old community dwellers with hip fractures. Life expectancy, nursing facility days, and costs. Hip fracture reduced life expectancy by 1.8 years or 25% compared with an age- and sex-matched general population. About 17% of remaining life was spent in a nursing facility. The lifetime attributable cost of hip fracture was $81,300, of which nearly half (44%) related to nursing facility expenses. The development of deficits in ADLs after hip fracture resulted in substantial morbidity, mortality, and costs. Hip fractures result in significant mortality, morbidity, and costs. The estimated lifetime cost for all hip fractures in the United States in 1997 likely exceeded $20 billion. These results emphasize the importance of current and future interventions to decrease the incidence of hip fracture.
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            Is operative delay associated with increased mortality of hip fracture patients? Systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression.

            Mortality associated with hip fracture is high in elderly patients. Surgical repair within 24 hr after admission is recommended by The Royal College of Physicians' guidelines; however, the effect of operative delay on mortality remains controversial. The objective of this study was to determine whether operative delay increases mortality in elderly patients with hip fracture. Published English-language reports examining the effect of surgical delay on mortality in patients who underwent hip surgery were identified from electronic databases. The primary outcome was defined as all-cause mortality at 30 days and at one year. Effect sizes with corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated by using a DerSimonian-Laird randomeffects model. Sixteen prospective or retrospective observational studies (257,367 patients) on surgical timing and mortality in hip fracture patients were selected. When a cut-off of 48 hr from the time of admission was used to define operative delay, the odds ratio for 30-day mortality was 1.41 (95% CI = 1.29-1.54, P < 0.001), and that for one-year mortality was 1.32 (95% CI = 1.21-1.43, P < 0.001). In hip fracture patients, operative delay beyond 48 hr after admission may increase the odds of 30-day all-cause mortality by 41% and of one-year all-cause mortality by 32%. Potential residual confounding factors in observational studies may limit definitive conclusions. Although routine surgery within 48 hr after admission is hard to achieve in most facilities, anesthesiologists must be aware that an undue delay may be harmful to hip fracture patients, especially those at relatively low risk or those who are young.
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              Timing Matters in Hip Fracture Surgery: Patients Operated within 48 Hours Have Better Outcomes. A Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression of over 190,000 Patients

              Background To assess the relationship between surgical delay and mortality in elderly patients with hip fracture. Systematic review and meta-analysis of retrospective and prospective studies published from 1948 to 2011. Medline (from 1948), Embase (from 1974) and CINAHL (from 1982), and the Cochrane Library. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for each study were extracted and pooled with a random effects model. Heterogeneity, publication bias, Bayesian analysis, and meta-regression analyses were done. Criteria for inclusion were retro- and prospective elderly population studies, patients with operated hip fractures, indication of timing of surgery and survival status. Methodology/Principal Findings There were 35 independent studies, with 191,873 participants and 34,448 deaths. The majority considered a cut-off between 24 and 48 hours. Early hip surgery was associated with a lower risk of death (pooled odds ratio (OR) 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.67 to 0.81; P<0.000) and pressure sores (0.48, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.60; P<0.000). Meta-analysis of the adjusted prospective studies gave similar results. The Bayesian probability predicted that about 20% of future studies might find that early surgery is not beneficial for decreasing mortality. None of the confounders (e.g. age, sex, data source, baseline risk, cut-off points, study location, quality and year) explained the differences between studies. Conclusions/Significance Surgical delay is associated with a significant increase in the risk of death and pressure sores. Conservative timing strategies should be avoided. Orthopaedic surgery services should ensure the majority of patients are operated within one or two days.

                Author and article information

                BMC Health Serv Res
                BMC Health Serv Res
                BMC Health Services Research
                BioMed Central (London )
                10 September 2018
                10 September 2018
                : 18
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1757 1758, GRID grid.6292.f, Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, , University of Bologna, ; Via San Giacomo, 12, 40126 Bologna, Italy
                [2 ]ISNI 0000000419368956, GRID grid.168010.e, Department of Medicine, , Stanford University, ; 1265 Welch Road, 94305, Stanford, California, USA
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2154 6641, GRID grid.419038.7, Rizzoli Orthopedic Institute, ; Via Giulio Cesare Pupilli, 40138 Bologna, Italy
                © The Author(s). 2018

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Research Article
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                © The Author(s) 2018

                Health & Social care

                elderly, hip fracture, rehabilitation, surgery


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