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      Cardiovascular Determinants of Mortality in Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease

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          Background: Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD stage 4-5) have an increased risk of death. To study the determinants of all-cause mortality, we recruited 210 consecutive CKD stage 4-5 patients not on dialysis to the prospective Chronic Arterial Disease, quality of life and mortality in chronic KIDney injury (CADKID) study. Methods: One hundred seventy-four patients underwent maximal bicycle ergometry stress testing and lateral lumbar radiography to study abdominal aortic calcification score and echocardiography. Carotid and femoral artery intima-media thickness and elasticity and brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation were measured in 156 patients. Results: The duration of follow-up was 42 ± 17 months (range 134–2,217 days). The mean age was 61 ± 14 years, and the estimated glomerular filtration rate was 12 (11–15) mL/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup>. Thirty-six (21%) patients died during follow-up (time to death 835 ± 372 days). Seventy-five and 21 patients had diabetes and coronary artery disease, respectively, and all but one had hypertension. In the respective multivariate proportional hazards models adjusted for age, sex, and coronary artery disease, the significant determinants of mortality were troponin T, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, maximal ergometry performance, abdominal aortic calcification score, E/ e′ ratio, and albumin. Conclusion: Stress ergometry performance, abdominal aortic calcification score, E/ e′ of echocardiography, and plasma cardiac biomarkers and albumin predict mortality in advanced CKD.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Common carotid intima-media thickness and risk of stroke and myocardial infarction: the Rotterdam Study.

          Noninvasive assessment of intima-media thickness (IMT) is widely used in observational studies and trials as an intermediate or proxy end point for cardiovascular disease. However, data showing that IMT predicts cardiovascular disease are limited. We studied whether common carotid IMT is related to future stroke and myocardial infarction. We used a nested case-control approach among 7983 subjects aged > or =55 years participating in the Rotterdam Study. At baseline (March 1990 through July 1993), ultrasound images of the common carotid artery were stored on videotape. Determination of incident myocardial infarction and stroke was predominantly based on hospital discharge records. Analysis (logistic regression) was based on 98 myocardial infarctions and 95 strokes that were registered before December 31, 1994. IMT was measured from videotape for all case subjects and a sample of 1373 subjects who remained free from myocardial infarction and stroke during follow-up. The mean duration of follow-up was 2.7 years. Results were adjusted for age and sex. Stroke risk increased gradually with increasing IMT. The odds ratio for stroke per standard deviation increase (0.163 mm) was 1.41 (95% CI, 1.25 to 1.82). For myocardial infarction, an odds ratio of 1.43 (95% CI, 1.16 to 1.78) was found. When subjects with a previous myocardial infarction or stroke were excluded, odds ratios were 1.57 (95% CI, 1.27 to 1.94) for stroke and 1.51 (95% CI, 1.18 to 1.92) for myocardial infarction. Additional adjustment for several cardiovascular risk factors attenuated these associations: 1.34 (95% CI, 1.08 to 1.67) and 1.25 (95% CI, 0.98 to 1.58), respectively. The present study, based on a short follow-up period, provides evidence that an increased common carotid IMT is associated with future cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events.
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            New indices to classify location, severity and progression of calcific lesions in the abdominal aorta: a 25-year follow-up study.

             L Kauppila (1997)
            The purpose of the present study was to assess the location, severity and progression of radiopaque lumbar aortic calcifications and to evaluate the utility of summary scores of lumbar calcification in a population-based cohort. Lateral lumbar films, obtained in 617 Framingham heart study participants, were analysed for the presence of abdominal aortic wall calcification in the region corresponding to the first through fourth lumbar vertebrae. The severity of the anterior and posterior aortic calcification were graded individually on a 0-3 scale for each lumbar segment and the results were summarized to develop four different composite scores: (1) affected segments score (range 0-4); (2) anterior and posterior affected score (range 0-8); and (3) antero-posterior severity score (range 0-24). The prevalence of aortic calcification was 37% in men and 27% in women at baseline and 86% in both genders at the follow-up exam 25 years later. During the follow-up interval, the mean of the affected segments score increased from 0.7 in men (0.5 in women) to 2.7 (2.8 in women), the mean of the anterior and posterior affected score from 1.2 (0.8 in women) (P = 0.012 for difference between genders) and the mean of the antero-posterior severity score increased from 1.5 (1.3 in women) to 9.3 (10.3 in women). The antero-posterior severity score offered a slight advantage over other composite scores and had the highest inter-rater intra-class correlations. In summary, lumbar aortic calcification can be graded and composite summary scores are reproducible. This technique appears to provide a simple, low cost assessment of subclinical vascular disease.
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              Interrelations between brachial endothelial function and carotid intima-media thickness in young adults: the cardiovascular risk in young Finns study.

              Endothelial vasodilator dysfunction and carotid intima-media thickening (IMT) are 2 indicators of subclinical cardiovascular disease. We examined their correlation and interaction with risk factors in a large, community-based cohort of young adults. As part of the longitudinal Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, we measured endothelium-dependent brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and carotid artery IMT by ultrasound in 2109 healthy adults aged 24 to 39 years. FMD was inversely associated with IMT (P 0.2). Brachial FMD is inversely associated with carotid IMT. The number of risk factors in young adults is correlated with increased IMT in subjects with evidence of endothelial dysfunction, but not in subjects with preserved endothelial function. These observations suggest that endothelial dysfunction is an early event in atherosclerosis and that the status of systemic endothelial function may modify the association between risk factors and atherosclerosis.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                September 2020
                10 August 2020
                : 51
                : 9
                : 726-735
                aKidney Center, Turku University Hospital and University of Turku, Turku, Finland
                bDepartment of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Turku University Hospital and University of Turku, Turku, Finland
                cCentre for Population Health Research, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland
                dResearch Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
                eDepartment of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
                fPerioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland
                Author notes
                *Markus Hakamäki, Kidney Center, Turku University Hospital, Hämeentie 11, FIN-20520 Turku (Finland), markus.hakamaki@tyks.fi
                509582 Am J Nephrol 2020;51:726–735
                © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 4, Pages: 10
                Patient-Oriented, Translational Research: Research Article


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