Roosa Lankinen a , Markus Hakamäki a , * , Kaj Metsärinne a , Niina S. Koivuviita a , Jussi P. Pärkkä b , Tapio Hellman a , Noora Kartiosuo c , d , Olli T. Raitakari b , c , d , Mikko J. Järvisalo a , e , f
10 August 2020
Background: Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD stage 4-5) have an increased risk of death. To study the determinants of all-cause mortality, we recruited 210 consecutive CKD stage 4-5 patients not on dialysis to the prospective Chronic Arterial Disease, quality of life and mortality in chronic KIDney injury (CADKID) study. Methods: One hundred seventy-four patients underwent maximal bicycle ergometry stress testing and lateral lumbar radiography to study abdominal aortic calcification score and echocardiography. Carotid and femoral artery intima-media thickness and elasticity and brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation were measured in 156 patients. Results: The duration of follow-up was 42 ± 17 months (range 134–2,217 days). The mean age was 61 ± 14 years, and the estimated glomerular filtration rate was 12 (11–15) mL/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup>. Thirty-six (21%) patients died during follow-up (time to death 835 ± 372 days). Seventy-five and 21 patients had diabetes and coronary artery disease, respectively, and all but one had hypertension. In the respective multivariate proportional hazards models adjusted for age, sex, and coronary artery disease, the significant determinants of mortality were troponin T, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, maximal ergometry performance, abdominal aortic calcification score, E/ e′ ratio, and albumin. Conclusion: Stress ergometry performance, abdominal aortic calcification score, E/ e′ of echocardiography, and plasma cardiac biomarkers and albumin predict mortality in advanced CKD.