Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide infection caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. At least a third of the world human population are infected with the parasite, making it one of the most successful parasitic infections. Primary maternal infection may cause health-threatening sequelae for the foetus, or even cause death in uterus. Reactivation of a latent infection in immune deficiency conditions such as AIDS and organ transplantation can cause fatal toxoplasmic encephalitis. Toxoplasmosis is a major cause of retinochoroiditis, especially in individuals with an impaired immune system. Despite the usually 'asymptomatic' nature of the infection, a significant burden imposed by the parasite necessitates the implementation of effective means for the prevention, diagnosis, and management of this disease. Laboratory diagnosis, i.e. PCR and serologic assays, plays the main role in the diagnosis of congenital infection and assists in the confirmatory diagnosis of toxoplasmic encephalitis and ocular toxoplasmosis. Here, we briefly review general aspects of Toxoplasma infection and focus on the diagnostic methods currently used in medical laboratories for the diagnosis of Toxoplasma infection.