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      Physical Exercise and the Hallmarks of Breast Cancer: A Narrative Review.

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          Abstract

          Growing evidence suggests that, among the different molecular/cellular pathophysiological mechanisms associated with cancer, there are 14 hallmarks that play a major role, including: (i) sustaining proliferative signaling, (ii) evading growth suppressors, (iii) activating invasion and metastasis, (iv) enabling replicative immortality, (v) inducing angiogenesis, (vi) resisting cell death, (vii) reprogramming energy metabolism, (viii) evading immune destruction, (ix) genome instability and mutations, (x) tumor-promoting inflammation, (xi) unlocking phenotypic plasticity, (xii) nonmutational epigenetic reprogramming, (xiii) polymorphic microbiomes, and (xiv) senescent cells. These hallmarks are also associated with the development of breast cancer, which represents the most prevalent tumor type in the world. The present narrative review aims to describe, for the first time, the effects of physical activity/exercise on these hallmarks. In summary, an active lifestyle, and particularly regular physical exercise, provides beneficial effects on all major hallmarks associated with breast cancer, and might therefore help to counteract the progression of the disease or its associated burden.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Cancers (Basel)
          Cancers
          MDPI AG
          2072-6694
          2072-6694
          Jan 03 2023
          : 15
          : 1
          Affiliations
          [1 ] i+HeALTH, Miguel de Cervantes European University, 27038 Valladolid, Spain.
          [2 ] Research Institute of the Hospital 12 de Octubre ('Imas12' [PaHerg Group]), 28041 Madrid, Spain.
          [3 ] Department of Systems Biology, University of Alcalá, 28871 Madrid, Spain.
          [4 ] 2E Science, Robbio, 27038 Pavia, Italy.
          [5 ] Departmental Faculty of Medicine, Saint Camillus International University of Health and Medical Sciences, 00133 Rome, Italy.
          [6 ] Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, 00133 Rome, Italy.
          [7 ] Faculty of Sport Sciences, Universidad Europea de Madrid, 28670 Madrid, Spain.
          Article
          cancers15010324
          10.3390/cancers15010324
          9818971
          36612320
          9d4297a0-448f-4259-824a-57e729c664d9
          History

          biomarkers,breast cancer,mammary cancer,physical activity,training

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