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      Antennal olfactory responses to individual cereal volatiles in Theocolax elegans (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

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      Journal of Stored Products Research
      Elsevier BV

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          Host Selection by Insect Parasitoids

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            Volatiles as an indicator of fungal activity and differentiation between species, and the potential use of electronic nose technology for early detection of grain spoilage.

            There is significant interest in methods for the early detection of quality changes in cereal grains. The development of electronic nose technology in recent years has stimulated interest in the use of characteristic volatiles and odours as a rapid, early indication of deterioration in grain quality. This review details the current status of this area of research. The range of volatiles produced by spoilage fungi in vitro and on grain are described, and the key volatile groups indicative of spoilage are identified. The relationship between current grain quality descriptors and the general classes of off-odours as defined in the literature, e.g. sour, musty, are not very accurate and the possible correlation between these for wheat, maize and other cereals, and volatiles are detailed. Examples of differentiation of spoilage moulds and between grain types using an electronic nose instrument are described. The potential for rapid and remote grain classification and future prospects for the use of such technology as a major descriptor of quality are discussed.
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              Characterization of a female-produced courtship pheromone in the parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis.

              Males of the parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) show a characteristic courtship behavior. We demonstrate that male arrestment and key behavioral elements of the courtship sequence are mediated by a female-derived contact sex pheromone. Males were arrested on paper disks treated with female extracts but not on those treated with male extracts. Male responsiveness was influenced by the surface to which female extracts were applied. Extracts applied to an extracted beetle elytron arrested males more strongly than those applied to filter paper of comparable size. However, more complex behavioral elements, such as head nodding and copulation attempts, were shown only when extracts were applied to extracted male cadavers, suggesting that tactile or visual cues synergize the male response. The chemicals involved are stable, of low volatility, and nonpolar. Dead females arrested males and elicited courtship behavior for at least 8 d. Males showed no sign of attraction to live females at a distance of 3 cm in an olfactometer. Fractionation of female extracts demonstrated that the activity was exclusively located in the nonpolar fraction. Analysis of the active fraction by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that cuticular hydrocarbons with chain lengths between 25 and 37 carbon units were present. Comparison of hydrocarbon profiles from males and females showed qualitative and quantitative differences. These results suggest that sex-specific cuticular hydrocarbons are the key signals mediating the male courtship behavior in N. vitripennis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Stored Products Research
                Journal of Stored Products Research
                Elsevier BV
                0022474X
                July 2009
                July 2009
                : 45
                : 3
                : 195-200
                Article
                10.1016/j.jspr.2009.02.002
                9d462e21-4697-4f0d-9c3e-1dcd370cfbd9
                © 2009

                http://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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