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      Prevalencia de anticuerpos anti-citomegalovirus y anti-virus Epstein-Barr en Valencia, Estado Carabobo, Venezuela. Translated title: Citomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus prevalence in Valencia, Venezuela.

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          Abstract

          Resumen Introducción: Los virus Epstein-Barr y Citomegalovirus pueden infectar a los humanos precozmente. Alrededor del 90% de la población mundial es portadora de estos herpesvirus, estableciéndose una infección latente por largos períodos de tiempo. Característicamente muestran un patrón seroepidemiológico altamente relacionado con el nivel socioeconómico de la comunidad en estudio. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de IgG e IgM anti CMV y VEB en una población menor de 25 años, sana del estado Carabobo. Metodología: El estudio se realizó bajo las Normas de Buenas Prácticas Médicas en Investigación, y el consentimiento informado fue obtenido en cada caso. Se incluyeron 210 individuos en aparentes buenas condiciones de salud, de ambos sexos, distribuidos en 7 grupos etarios: I: <28 días. II: 1-11 meses. III: 12-23 meses. IV: 24-48 meses. V: 5-10 años. VI: 11-16 años. VII: 16-24 años. La determinación de IgG e IgM se realizó por técnicas de Microelisa. Resultados: La IgM anyti CMV y anti VEB mostró dos picos: el primero en niños menores de 1 año (Grupo II) con porcentajes máximos de 23,3 y 6,6%, respectivamente, y el segundo comenzó después de los 11 años para CMV y a los 16 años para VEB. Todos los recién nacidos fueron positivos para ambas IgG (CMV y VEB), y este porcentaje fue disminuyendo lentamente hasta un 33% a los 12 meses para CMV y 20% para VEB. Después de ésta edad se observa un incremento progresivo para la IgG, con un 80% de positivos cercano a los 4 años para CMV (Grupo IV) y un poco después (Grupo V) para VEB. El aumento de los títulos de IgG anti CMV en la población se observó mas precozmente en el sexo femenino (Grupo IV) que en el masculino (Grupo V). Conclusión: la infección por CMV y VEB es altamente prevalente en la población estudiada; la Infección por CMV ocurre antes del primer año de vida y por VEB un poco después. Un 80% de prevalencia para ambos virus se encuentra después de los 4 años de edad.

          Translated abstract

          Abstract Introduction: Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) can infect humans at early ages: Overall, 90% of the world's population carry these herpesvirus, establishing a lifelong silent infection. They showed an epidemiological pattern related with socioeconomic level. Objective: To determine the prevalence of anti IgG and IgM of EBV and CMV in a population younger than 25 years of age. Methods: The study was done according with Good Clinical Practices: an informed consent was obtained. Two hundred and ten subjects in good health were included and stratified by age: I: Children < 28 days; II.- Between 1 to eleven months. III: 12 -23 months. IV.- 24 - 48 months. V.- 5 - 10 years. VI: 11 - 16 years. VII: 16 - 24 years. The IgG and IgM were determined by ELISA technique. Results: IgM CMV and EBV showed two peaks: the first one occurred in children younger than a year (group II) for both virus, with a maximum percentage of 23.3% and 6.6% respectively, the second one, started after eleven years for CMV and sixteen years for EBV. All the newborn were positive for both IgG, CMV and EBV, and they decreased slowly, until 33% at twelve months of age for CMV and less than 20% for EBV . After this age, a progressive increase of IgG was observed, with 80% of positivity near four years of age for CMV (group IV) and later (group V) for EBV. The increase of IgG CMV 's titers in the population was observed earlier in the female (group IV) than in the male (group V) with higher titers for the first one started at five years of age. Conclusion. CMV and EBV infection are highly prevalent among the population studied; CMV infection occurs before the first year of life and EBV after that. 80% of seroprevalence is achieved after four years for both viruses

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          Epidemiology of Epstein-Barr virus infection in pre-adolescent children: application of a new salivary method in Edinburgh, Scotland.

          To describe the epidemiology of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) among primary school children by testing saliva with a new EBV capsid antigen "G" antibody capture radioimmunoassay (GACRIA). A population based sample of 7 year old schoolchildren were followed up at age 11. 30 randomly chosen primary schools in Edinburgh, Scotland. 552 schoolchildren. Data on risk factors for infection were collected by questionnaire at ages 7 and 11. Saliva samples collected at age 11 were examined by GACRIA for evidence of previous infection with EBV. For 102 subjects, a second salivary specimen collected approximately one month after the first sample was available for testing as a measure of the repeatability of the method. Unequivocal results were found in 91% of samples and the repeatability of the test was good (kappa = 0.71). Fifty six per cent of children had antibodies to EBV. In a logistic regression analysis, independent risk factors for infection were sharing a room (odds ratio 1.78, 1.14, 2.79), head of household's social class IV/V compared with I (odds ratio 2.87, 1.08, 7.34), and schools serving predominantly rented housing estates (odds ratio 2.3, 1.09, 4.84). This study is the first application of EBV viral capsid GACRIA to salivary samples. The method was successfully used to describe the epidemiology of EBV. In this study, characteristics of the home seemed to be more important than those of the school in determining the likelihood of infection with EBV.
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            Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and cytomegalovirus in adolescents.

            We determined the prevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibodies in a cohort of adolescents 12 to 22 years of age in anticipation of the development of vaccines to control HSV and CMV infections. For the overall study population, we found that 62% were seropositive for HSV type 1 (HSV-1), 12% were seropositive for HSV type 2 (HSV-2), and 65% were seropositive for CMV. Race was not related to HSV-1 seropositivity, but African-American adolescents were more likely than Caucasian adolescents to be seropositive for HSV-2 and CMV. Girls also were more likely than boys to be seropositive for HSV-2 and CMV. For boys, history of a sexually transmitted disease was identified as a risk factor for HSV-2 seropositivity; for girls, a greater number of sexual partners increased the risk of being seropositive for HSV-2. Our data demonstrating a high prevalence of infection during adolescence suggest that immunization for HSV-1, HSV-2, and CMV may need to occur in childhood.
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              Cytomegalovirus seroepidemiology in an urban community of São Paulo, Brazil

              INTRODUCTION: After the era of rubella vaccine, cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is one of the most frequently causes of mental retardation and congenital deafness. Seroepidemiological studies are necessary to understand the transmission dynamics of the disease. The purpose of the study was to quantify the transmission rate of CMV disease in a community in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Using ELISA test (IgG), a retrospective serological survey looking for CMV antibodies was performed in an non-immunized community. Frozen sera from 443 individuals, randomly selected by cluster sampling technique in the town of Caieiras, São Paulo, were collected from November 1990 to January 1991. Seroprevalence was stratified by age (0-40 years). Mathematical techniques were applied to determine the age-dependent decay function of maternal antibodies during the first year of life, the age-dependent seroprevalence function and the force of infection for CMV in this community. RESULTS: It was observed a descending phase of seropositivity in the first 9 months, but changes in antibody titration were observed between 8 months old and one year of age. The average age of the first infection was 5.02 months of age and 19.84 years, when the age-dependent seroprevalence and the force of infection were analyzed between 10 months of age and 10 years of age and from 10 to 40 years old, respectively. CONCLUSION: CMV infection is highly prevalent among the population studied and infection occurs in the first year of life. This study shows that most women at reproductive age are vulnerable to the first infection, increasing the risk for congenital infection.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                rsvm
                Revista de la Sociedad Venezolana de Microbiología
                Rev. Soc. Ven. Microbiol.
                Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Venezolana de Microbiología. (Caracas, DF, Venezuela )
                1315-2556
                July 2002
                : 22
                : 2
                : 131-135
                Affiliations
                [02] Valencia orgnameUniversidad de Carabobo orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud orgdiv2Unidad de Infectología Pediátrica Venezuela
                [01] Valencia orgnameUniversidad de Carabobo orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud orgdiv2Unidad de investigaciones en Inmunología Clínica Venezuela
                [03] Valencia orgnameCiudad Hospitalaria Enrique Tejera orgdiv1Unidad de Inmunología Venezuela
                Article
                S1315-25562002000200007 S1315-2556(02)02200207
                9d4eddae-3ac8-42c4-80a8-eef5b1913e3c

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 23, Pages: 5
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                SciELO Venezuela

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                Investigaciones Originales y Otras Modalidades de Publicación

                Prevalencia,citomegalovirus,virus Epstein-Barr
                Prevalencia, citomegalovirus, virus Epstein-Barr

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