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      Pancreatic β-Cell Rest Replenishes Insulin Secretory Capacity and Attenuates Diabetes in an Extreme Model of Obese Type 2 Diabetes.

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          Abstract

          The onset of common obesity-linked type 2 diabetes (T2D) is marked by exhaustive failure of pancreatic β-cell functional mass to compensate for insulin resistance and increased metabolic demand, leading to uncontrolled hyperglycemia. Here, the β-cell-deficient obese hyperglycemic/hyperinsulinemic KS db/db mouse model was used to assess consequential effects on β-cell functional recovery by lowering glucose homeostasis and/or improving insulin sensitivity after treatment with thiazolidinedione therapy or glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonism alone or in combination with sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition (SGLT-2i). SGLT-2i combination therapies improved glucose homeostasis, independent of changes in body weight, resulting in a synergistic increase in pancreatic insulin content marked by significant recovery of the β-cell mature insulin secretory population but with limited changes in β-cell mass and no indication of β-cell dedifferentiation. Restoration of β-cell insulin secretory capacity also restored biphasic insulin secretion. These data emphasize that by therapeutically alleviating the demand for insulin in vivo, irrespective of weight loss, endogenous β-cells recover significant function that can contribute to attenuating diabetes. Thus, this study provides evidence that alleviation of metabolic demand on the β-cell, rather than targeting the β-cell itself, could be effective in delaying the progression of T2D.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Diabetes
          Diabetes
          American Diabetes Association
          1939-327X
          0012-1797
          January 2019
          : 68
          : 1
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Division of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease, MedImmune LLC, Gaithersburg, MD bbo@gubra.dk.
          [2 ] Gubra ApS, Hørsholm, Denmark.
          [3 ] Division of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease, MedImmune LLC, Gaithersburg, MD.
          Article
          db18-0304
          10.2337/db18-0304
          30305366

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