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      Recreational Cannabis Legalization in the US and Maternal Use during the Preconception, Prenatal, and Postpartum Periods

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          Abstract

          In the United States (US), recreational cannabis use is on the rise. Since 2011, 11 states and the District of Columbia have legalized cannabis for adult recreational use. As additional states consider legalizing, there is an urgent need to assess associations between recreational cannabis legalization and maternal use in the preconception, prenatal, and postpartum periods—all critical windows for maternal and child health. Using cross-sectional data from the 2016 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, we assessed associations between state cannabis legalization and self-reported maternal cannabis use. Using logistic regression, we estimated the adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) of cannabis use during the preconception, prenatal, and postpartum period for women delivering a live-born infant in three states that had legalized recreational cannabis (Alaska, Colorado, and Washington) and three states that had not legalized (Maine, Michigan, and New Hampshire) by 2016. Our final sample size was 7258 women. We utilized 95% confidence intervals (CI) and a significance level of alpha = 0.05. After adjustment for potential confounders, women who resided in states with legalized recreational cannabis were significantly more likely to use cannabis during the preconception (PR 1.52; 95%CI ranging from 1.28–1.80; p < 0.001), prenatal (PR 2.21; 95% CI ranging from 1.67–2.94; p < 0.001), and postpartum (PR 1.73; 95%CI ranging from 1.30–2.30; p < 0.001) periods, compared to women who resided in states without legalized recreational cannabis. Although evidence about the effect of marijuana use during these periods is nascent, these findings show potential for increased incidence of child exposure to cannabis. Longitudinal research is needed to assess immediate and sustained impacts of maternal use before and after state legalization of recreational cannabis.

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          Prenatal exposure to cannabis and maternal and child health outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

          Objective To assess the effects of use of cannabis during pregnancy on maternal and fetal outcomes. Data sources 7 electronic databases were searched from inception to 1 April 2014. Studies that investigated the effects of use of cannabis during pregnancy on maternal and fetal outcomes were included. Study selection Case–control studies, cross-sectional and cohort studies were included. Data extraction and synthesis Data synthesis was undertaken via systematic review and meta-analysis of available evidence. All review stages were conducted independently by 2 reviewers. Main outcomes and measures Maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes up to 6 weeks postpartum after exposure to cannabis. Meta-analyses were conducted on variables that had 3 or more studies that measured an outcome in a consistent manner. Outcomes for which meta-analyses were conducted included: anaemia, birth weight, low birth weight, neonatal length, placement in the neonatal intensive care unit, gestational age, head circumference and preterm birth. Results 24 studies were included in the review. Results of the meta-analysis demonstrated that women who used cannabis during pregnancy had an increase in the odds of anaemia (pooled OR (pOR)=1.36: 95% CI 1.10 to 1.69) compared with women who did not use cannabis during pregnancy. Infants exposed to cannabis in utero had a decrease in birth weight (low birth weight pOR=1.77: 95% CI 1.04 to 3.01; pooled mean difference (pMD) for birth weight=109.42 g: 38.72 to 180.12) compared with infants whose mothers did not use cannabis during pregnancy. Infants exposed to cannabis in utero were also more likely to need placement in the neonatal intensive care unit compared with infants whose mothers did not use cannabis during pregnancy (pOR=2.02: 1.27 to 3.21). Conclusions and relevance Use of cannabis during pregnancy may increase adverse outcomes for women and their neonates. As use of cannabis gains social acceptance, pregnant women and their medical providers could benefit from health education on potential adverse effects of use of cannabis during pregnancy.
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            Potency trends of Δ9-THC and other cannabinoids in confiscated cannabis preparations from 1993 to 2008.

            The University of Mississippi has a contract with the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) to carry out a variety of research activities dealing with cannabis, including the Potency Monitoring (PM) program, which provides analytical potency data on cannabis preparations confiscated in the United States. This report provides data on 46,211 samples seized and analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) during 1993-2008. The data showed an upward trend in the mean Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) content of all confiscated cannabis preparations, which increased from 3.4% in 1993 to 8.8% in 2008. Hashish potencies did not increase consistently during this period; however, the mean yearly potency varied from 2.5-9.2% (1993-2003) to 12.0-29.3% (2004-2008). Hash oil potencies also varied considerably during this period (16.8 ± 16.3%). The increase in cannabis preparation potency is mainly due to the increase in the potency of nondomestic versus domestic samples. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
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              Self-reported Medical and Nonmedical Cannabis Use Among Pregnant Women in the United States

              This study uses National Survey on Drug Use and Health data to examine prevalence and frequency of medical and nonmedical cannabis use among pregnant and nonpregnant women between 2013 and 2017.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                ijerph
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                MDPI
                1661-7827
                1660-4601
                01 February 2020
                February 2020
                : 17
                : 3
                : 909
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Health, Behavior, and Society, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 624 North Broadway Baltimore, MD 21205, USA; Sara.neelon@ 123456jhu.edu
                [2 ]Department of Health Policy and Management, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 624 North Broadway Baltimore, MD 21205, USA; ahecht3@ 123456jhu.edu
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: Kara.Skelton@ 123456jhu.edu
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4531-0534
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4942-5574
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4643-2397
                Article
                ijerph-17-00909
                10.3390/ijerph17030909
                7037220
                32024173
                9d545a17-aabd-4050-bccf-5234b25dddbb
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 10 December 2019
                : 29 January 2020
                Categories
                Article

                Public health
                marijuana,perinatal health,substance use,prams
                Public health
                marijuana, perinatal health, substance use, prams

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