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      Effect of dexmedetomidine on the development of mechanical allodynia and central sensitization in chronic post-ischemia pain rats

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS I) is an intractable neuropathic pain syndrome. Chronic post-ischemia pain (CPIP) model is an animal model of CRPS I which is produced by ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury of the hind limb. Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is a selective and potent α2 adrenergic receptor agonist with analgesic and protective effects following an IR injury. We hypothesized that DEX protects the development of mechanical allodynia and central sensitization in CRPS I. Therefore, we evaluated the dose-related protective effect of DEX in a CPIP model.

          Methods

          We divided 45 rats into five groups: sham, CPIP, CPIP + DEX 10 µg/kg, CPIP + DEX 50 µg/kg, and CPIP + DEX 100 µg/kg. Rats in the sham group underwent sham surgery, and the other rats received CPIP injury. One hour before reperfusion or end of sham surgery, normal saline was injected into the rats in the sham and CPIP groups, and DEX (designated dose) was injected into the rats in the other groups. All rats were evaluated for the withdrawal threshold of both hind paws before surgery and 1, 3, and 7 days after surgery. Phosphorylation of N-methyl- d-aspartate receptor subunits (pGluN1) and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (pERK) in the spinal cord were measured 3 days after surgery.

          Results

          Administration of DEX before reperfusion showed a significant increase in the withdrawal threshold in both hind paws and a significant decrease of the expressions of pGluN1 and pERK in CPIP rats dose dependently ( P<0.05).

          Conclusion

          DEX may inhibit the development of mechanical allodynia and central sensitization in CPIP rats.

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          Most cited references 25

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          ERK MAP kinase activation in superficial spinal cord neurons induces prodynorphin and NK-1 upregulation and contributes to persistent inflammatory pain hypersensitivity.

          Activation of ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinase in dorsal horn neurons of the spinal cord by peripheral noxious stimulation contributes to short-term pain hypersensitivity. We investigated ERK activation by peripheral inflammation and its involvement in regulating gene expression in the spinal cord and in contributing to inflammatory pain hypersensitivity. Injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into a hindpaw produced a persistent inflammation and a sustained ERK activation in neurons in the superficial layers (laminae I-IIo) of the dorsal horn. CFA also induced an upregulation of prodynorphin and neurokinin-1 (NK-1) in dorsal horn neurons, which was suppressed by intrathecal delivery of the MEK (MAP kinase kinase) inhibitor U0126. CFA-induced phospho-ERK primarily colocalized with prodynorphin and NK-1 in superficial dorsal horn neurons. Although intrathecal injection of U0126 did not affect basal pain sensitivity, it did attenuate both the establishment and maintenance of persistent inflammatory heat and mechanical hypersensitivity. Activation of the ERK pathway in a subset of nociceptive spinal neurons contributes, therefore, to persistent pain hypersensitivity, possibly via transcriptional regulation of genes, such as prodynorphin and NK-1.
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            Chronic post-ischemia pain (CPIP): a novel animal model of complex regional pain syndrome-type I (CRPS-I; reflex sympathetic dystrophy) produced by prolonged hindpaw ischemia and reperfusion in the rat.

            A neuropathic-like pain syndrome was produced in rats following prolonged hindpaw ischemia and reperfusion, creating an animal model of complex regional pain syndrome-Type I (CRPS-I; reflex sympathetic dystrophy) that we call chronic post-ischemia pain (CPIP). The method involves placing a tourniquet (a tight fitting O-ring) on one hindlimb of an anesthetized rat just proximal to the ankle joint for 3 h, and removing it to allow reperfusion prior to termination of the anesthesia. Rats exhibit hyperemia and edema/plasma extravasation of the ischemic hindpaw for a period of 2-4 h after reperfusion. Hyperalgesia to noxious mechanical stimulation (pin prick) and cold (acetone exposure), as well as mechanical allodynia to innocuous mechanical stimulation (von Frey hairs), are evident in the affected hindpaw as early as 8 h after reperfusion, and extend for at least 4 weeks in approximately 70% of the rats. The rats also exhibit spontaneous pain behaviors (hindpaw shaking, licking and favoring), and spread of hyperalgesia/allodynia to the uninjured contralateral hindpaw. Light-microscopic examination of the tibial nerve taken from the region just proximal to the tourniquet reveals no signs of nerve damage. Consistent with the hypothesis that the generation of free radicals may be partly responsible for CRPS-I and CPIP, two free radical scavengers, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperydine-1-oxyl (Tempol), were able to reduce signs of mechanical allodynia in this model.
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              Dexmedetomidine provides renoprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice

              Introduction Acute kidney injury following surgery incurs significant mortality with no proven preventative therapy. We investigated whether the α2 adrenoceptor agonist dexmedetomidine (Dex) provides protection against ischemia-reperfusion induced kidney injury in vitro and in vivo. Methods In vitro, a stabilised cell line of human kidney proximal tubular cells (HK2) was exposed to culture medium deprived of oxygen and glucose. Dex decreased HK2 cell death in a dose-dependent manner, an effect attenuated by the α2 adrenoceptor antagonist atipamezole, and likely transduced by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K-Akt) signaling. In vivo C57BL/6J mice received Dex (25 μg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.)) 30 minutes before or after either bilateral renal pedicle clamping for 25 minutes or right renal pedicle clamping for 40 minutes and left nephrectomy. Results Pre- or post-treatment with Dex provided cytoprotection, improved tubular architecture and function following renal ischemia. Consistent with this cytoprotection, dexmedetomidine reduced plasma high-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB-1) elevation when given prior to or after kidney ischemia-reperfusion; pretreatment also decreased toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression in tubular cells. Dex treatment provided long-term functional renoprotection, and even increased survival following nephrectomy. Conclusions Our data suggest that Dex likely activates cell survival signal pAKT via α2 adrenoceptors to reduce cell death and HMGB1 release and subsequently inhibits TLR4 signaling to provide reno-protection.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7090
                2018
                27 November 2018
                : 11
                : 3025-3030
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Kyungpook National University Chilgok Hospital, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea, jsyeo@ 123456knu.ac.kr
                [2 ]Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Kyungpook National University Hospital, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Jinseok Yeo, Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Kyungpook National University Chilgok Hospital, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 807 Hoguk-ro, Buk-gu, Daegu 41404, Korea, Tel +82 53 200 2644, Fax +82 53 200 2027, Email jsyeo@ 123456knu.ac.kr
                Article
                jpr-11-3025
                10.2147/JPR.S184621
                6267355
                © 2018 Yeo and Park. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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