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      A bi-adjuvant nanovaccine that potentiates immunogenicity of neoantigen for combination immunotherapy of colorectal cancer

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          Abstract

          A rationally designed bi-adjuvant nanovaccine enhances neoantigen immunogenicity and enables combination immunotherapy.

          Abstract

          Neoantigen vaccines have been enthusiastically pursued for personalized cancer immunotherapy while vast majority of neoantigens have no or low immunogenicity. Here, a bi-adjuvant neoantigen nanovaccine (banNV) that codelivered a peptide neoantigen (Adpgk) with two adjuvants [Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/8 agonist R848 and TLR9 agonist CpG] was developed for potent cancer immunotherapy. Specifically, banNVs were prepared by a nanotemplated synthesis of concatemer CpG, nanocondensation with cationic polypeptides, and then physical loading with hydrophobic R848 and Adpgk. The immunogenicity of the neoantigen was profoundly potentiated by efficient codelivery of neoantigen and dual synergistic adjuvants, which is accompanied by reduced acute systemic toxicity. BanNVs sensitized immune checkpoint programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1) on T cells, therefore, a combination of banNVs with aPD-1 conspicuously induced the therapy response and led to complete regression of 70% neoantigen-specific tumors without recurrence. We conclude that banNVs are promising to optimize personalized therapeutic neoantigen vaccines for cancer immunotherapy.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Predicting immunogenic tumour mutations by combining mass spectrometry and exome sequencing.

          Human tumours typically harbour a remarkable number of somatic mutations. If presented on major histocompatibility complex class I molecules (MHCI), peptides containing these mutations could potentially be immunogenic as they should be recognized as 'non-self' neo-antigens by the adaptive immune system. Recent work has confirmed that mutant peptides can serve as T-cell epitopes. However, few mutant epitopes have been described because their discovery required the laborious screening of patient tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes for their ability to recognize antigen libraries constructed following tumour exome sequencing. We sought to simplify the discovery of immunogenic mutant peptides by characterizing their general properties. We developed an approach that combines whole-exome and transcriptome sequencing analysis with mass spectrometry to identify neo-epitopes in two widely used murine tumour models. Of the >1,300 amino acid changes identified, ∼13% were predicted to bind MHCI, a small fraction of which were confirmed by mass spectrometry. The peptides were then structurally modelled bound to MHCI. Mutations that were solvent-exposed and therefore accessible to T-cell antigen receptors were predicted to be immunogenic. Vaccination of mice confirmed the approach, with each predicted immunogenic peptide yielding therapeutically active T-cell responses. The predictions also enabled the generation of peptide-MHCI dextramers that could be used to monitor the kinetics and distribution of the anti-tumour T-cell response before and after vaccination. These findings indicate that a suitable prediction algorithm may provide an approach for the pharmacodynamic monitoring of T-cell responses as well as for the development of personalized vaccines in cancer patients.
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            Endocytosis and exocytosis of nanoparticles in mammalian cells

             Nuri Oh,  Ji-Ho Park (2014)
            Engineered nanoparticles that can be injected into the human body hold tremendous potential to detect and treat complex diseases. Understanding of the endocytosis and exocytosis mechanisms of nanoparticles is essential for safe and efficient therapeutic application. In particular, exocytosis is of significance in the removal of nanoparticles with drugs and contrast agents from the body, while endocytosis is of great importance for the targeting of nanoparticles in disease sites. Here, we review the recent research on the endocytosis and exocytosis of functionalized nanoparticles based on various sizes, shapes, and surface chemistries. We believe that this review contributes to the design of safe nanoparticles that can efficiently enter and leave human cells and tissues.
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              Synthetic Nanoparticles for Vaccines and Immunotherapy.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sci Adv
                Sci Adv
                SciAdv
                advances
                Science Advances
                American Association for the Advancement of Science
                2375-2548
                March 2020
                18 March 2020
                : 6
                : 12
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002, China.
                [2 ]Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
                [3 ]Department of Pharmaceutics, Center for Pharmaceutical Engineering and Sciences, Institute for Structural Biology, Drug Discovery and Development, School of Pharmacy; Massey Cancer Center; Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, 23219, USA.
                Author notes
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                aaw6071
                10.1126/sciadv.aaw6071
                7080439
                Copyright © 2020 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works. Distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial License 4.0 (CC BY-NC).

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, so long as the resultant use is not for commercial advantage and provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funding
                Funded by: doi http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000002, National Institutes of Health;
                Award ID: ZIA EB000073
                Categories
                Research Article
                Research Articles
                SciAdv r-articles
                Cancer
                Health and Medicine
                Cancer
                Custom metadata
                Penchie Limbo

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