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      Experimental Model for Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy by Intravitreal Dispase: Limited by Zonulolysis and Cataract

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          Background: The intravitreal injection of dispase has been shown to be a valuable method for induction of experimental PVR. The goal of the present study was to gain additional information about potential side effects associated with this method. Methods: Twenty-one pigmented rabbits received a single injection of dispase under topical anesthesia to one eye only, contralateral eyes served as untreated control. The animals were injected with doses from 0.045 to 0.065 units of dispase: 8 animals received 0.045 units, 9 animals 0.055 units and 4 animals 0.065 units. Results: Proliferative vitreoretinopathy occurred in 81% of the treated eyes. In 90% cataract formation was observed. Lens luxation was present in 47.3% of the cataract eyes. Conclusion: Intravitreal injection of dispase resulted in the reproducible induction of PVR in addition to cataract formation and lens luxation. Whether these effects may all be associated with a toxic reaction or whether the proliferative changes are solely triggered by endogenous reactions similar to the pathomechanism of human PVR and whether the cataract formation and the lens luxation may be avoided by changing the method of injection require further investigation.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Growth factors in retinal diseases: Proliferative vitreoretinopathy, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and retinal degeneration

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            Induction of posterior vitreous detachment in rabbits by intravitreal injection of tissue plasminogen activator following cryopexy.

            The purpose of this study was to generate intravitreal plasmin after intravitreal injection of tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) and cryopexy, and to assess its proteolytic effect on the vitreoretinal border region.Twenty-four hr after a mild cryopexy, 25 microg recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) was injected into the vitreous cavity, the fellow eye received an intravitreal injection of the same volume of buffered salt solution. Light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy was performed in 24 eyes that underwent vitrectomy 1 week later. Plasmin was measured prior and 2 hr after intravitreal TPA injection (4 eyes). Hyaluronic acid (8 eyes) and vitronectin (4 eyes) were measured 1 week after TPA- or BSS-injection and compared to untreated controls. In all eyes treated with TPA, histopathologic examination by scanning and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated a complete detachment of the vitreous from the surface of the retina as well as from the posterior surface of the lens. After BSS-injection, vitreous cortex attachment to the retina was demonstrated in all eyes. Two hr after TPA-injection, plasmin increased to 9.75 mU ml(-1)(s.d.+/-2.3). Neither a decrease of hyaluronic acid nor an increase of transglutaminase, that might alter the vitreous structure leading to a collapse of the vitreous, were detected in treated eyes. There was no increase of vitronectin indicating proliferative activity.A temporary breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier by cryopexy combined with intravitreal injection of TPA is a sufficient technique to induce a posterior vitreous detachment enzymatically. The method may be useful prior to mechanical vitrectomy. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
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              Pathogenesis and classification of massive periretinal proliferation.

               R Machemer (1978)
              Massive periretinal proliferation (MPP), a serious complication of retinal detachment, is caused by proliferation and fibrous metaplasia of cells mostly deriving from retinal pigment epithelium and retinal glial cells. Contracting fibrous membranes in the vitreous, and on and also under the retina, cause the intraocular changes of MPP. Early signs such as increased 'tobacco dust', pigmented and unpigmented clumps in the vitreous, and subtle preretinal and even retroretinal membranes are usually overlooked. The late signs such as starfolds, irregular retinal folds, circumferential folds, and funnel-shaped detachments are well known. The pathogenesis of the clinically visible signs is described, and a 4-stage classification of the disease is given.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                June 2006
                21 June 2006
                : 220
                : 4
                : 211-216
                aDepartment of Ophthalmology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria; bOphthalmic Biophysics Center, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Fla., USA; cOphthalmic Clinic of Virchow/Charité Hospital, Humboldt University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany; dCHU Sart-Tilman, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium; eUniversity of Paris, Hopital de l’Hotel-Dieu, Paris, France
                93073 Ophthalmologica 2006;220:211–216
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 1, References: 28, Pages: 6
                Original Paper


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