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      T cell metabolism drives immunity

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          Abstract

          Buck et al. discuss the role of lymphocyte metabolism on immune cell development and function.

          Abstract

          Lymphocytes must adapt to a wide array of environmental stressors as part of their normal development, during which they undergo a dramatic metabolic remodeling process. Research in this area has yielded surprising findings on the roles of diverse metabolic pathways and metabolites, which have been found to regulate lymphocyte signaling and influence differentiation, function and fate. In this review, we integrate the latest findings in the field to provide an up-to-date resource on lymphocyte metabolism.

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          Most cited references131

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          Bidirectional transport of amino acids regulates mTOR and autophagy.

          Amino acids are required for activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase which regulates protein translation, cell growth, and autophagy. Cell surface transporters that allow amino acids to enter the cell and signal to mTOR are unknown. We show that cellular uptake of L-glutamine and its subsequent rapid efflux in the presence of essential amino acids (EAA) is the rate-limiting step that activates mTOR. L-glutamine uptake is regulated by SLC1A5 and loss of SLC1A5 function inhibits cell growth and activates autophagy. The molecular basis for L-glutamine sensitivity is due to SLC7A5/SLC3A2, a bidirectional transporter that regulates the simultaneous efflux of L-glutamine out of cells and transport of L-leucine/EAA into cells. Certain tumor cell lines with high basal cellular levels of L-glutamine bypass the need for L-glutamine uptake and are primed for mTOR activation. Thus, L-glutamine flux regulates mTOR, translation and autophagy to coordinate cell growth and proliferation.
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            Transcriptional architecture and chromatin landscape of the core circadian clock in mammals.

            The mammalian circadian clock involves a transcriptional feed back loop in which CLOCK and BMAL1 activate the Period and Cryptochrome genes, which then feedback and repress their own transcription. We have interrogated the transcriptional architecture of the circadian transcriptional regulatory loop on a genome scale in mouse liver and find a stereotyped, time-dependent pattern of transcription factor binding, RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) recruitment, RNA expression, and chromatin states. We find that the circadian transcriptional cycle of the clock consists of three distinct phases: a poised state, a coordinated de novo transcriptional activation state, and a repressed state. Only 22% of messenger RNA (mRNA) cycling genes are driven by de novo transcription, suggesting that both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms underlie the mammalian circadian clock. We also find that circadian modulation of RNAPII recruitment and chromatin remodeling occurs on a genome-wide scale far greater than that seen previously by gene expression profiling.
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              Fueling immunity: insights into metabolism and lymphocyte function.

              Lymphocytes face major metabolic challenges upon activation. They must meet the bioenergetic and biosynthetic demands of increased cell proliferation and also adapt to changing environmental conditions, in which nutrients and oxygen may be limiting. An emerging theme in immunology is that metabolic reprogramming and lymphocyte activation are intricately linked. However, why T cells adopt specific metabolic programs and the impact that these programs have on T cell function and, ultimately, immunological outcome remain unclear. Research on tumor cell metabolism has provided valuable insight into metabolic pathways important for cell proliferation and the influence of metabolites themselves on signal transduction and epigenetic programming. In this Review, we highlight emerging concepts regarding metabolic reprogramming in proliferating cells and discuss their potential impact on T cell fate and function.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Exp Med
                J. Exp. Med
                jem
                jem
                The Journal of Experimental Medicine
                The Rockefeller University Press
                0022-1007
                1540-9538
                24 August 2015
                : 212
                : 9
                : 1345-1360
                Affiliations
                Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110
                Author notes
                CORRESPONDENCE Erika L. Pearce: pearce@ 123456ie-freiburg.mpg.de

                M.D. Buck, D. O’Sullivan, and E.L. Pearce’s present address is Dept. of Immunometabolism, Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology and Epigenetics, 79108 Freiburg, Germany.

                Article
                20151159
                10.1084/jem.20151159
                4548052
                26261266
                9d754f12-4e16-4d5e-8946-a6d8f1563ad2
                © 2015 Buck et al.

                This article is distributed under the terms of an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike–No Mirror Sites license for the first six months after the publication date (see http://www.rupress.org/terms). After six months it is available under a Creative Commons License (Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported license, as described at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/).

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                Medicine
                Medicine

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