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      Understanding of Factors Influencing Happiness of Middle-Aged Women in Korea Based on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs


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          Middle-aged women experience a lot of events of physical changes and various mental conflicts. The purpose of this study is to determine variables related to happiness, and to make and verify the model for happiness of middle-aged women.


          We constructed conceptual model for happiness of middle-aged women in Korea, based on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. This model consisted of three exogenous variables (health status, financial distress, and social support) and three endogenous variables (selfesteem, positive thinking, and happiness). For middle-aged women in Korea, we returned 442 questionnaires of 460 participants.


          Model fit of the modified model was satisfied; χ 2=102.108, GFI=0.959, CMIN/DF=2.917, RMSEA=0.068, AGFI=0.922, CFI=0.977, SRMR=0.0368. Happiness was explained by 82% through health status, financial distress, social support, self-esteem, and positive thinking. As Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, happiness of middle-aged women is related to basic needs (health status, financial distress, and social support), psychological needs (self-esteem and positive thinking) and self-fulfillment needs (happiness).


          Our study shows that it is required intervention for meeting basic factor such as health status, financial distress and social support in order to increase happiness of middle-aged women.

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          Most cited references27

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          Social support and quality of life.

          Social support is a broad term, which includes the supportive ways that different people behave in the social environment. Structural measures of the environment deal with the mere existence of social relationships. Functional measures refer to the resources that people within an individual's social network provide. Structural support shows a linear relation to quality of life; the functional aspects of support demonstrate the stress-buffering hypothesis. One of the main focuses of this article is to help researchers determine what aspects of social relationships or what types of support need to be measured and to consider the mechanisms by which support might influence quality of life. Also addressed is how to translate the correlational research on social support and quality of life into the field of support interventions, taking into account individual and situational differences.
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            Very happy people.

            A sample of 222 undergraduates was screened for high happiness using multiple confirming assessment filters. We compared the upper 10% of consistently very happy people with average and very unhappy people. The very happy people were highly social, and had stronger romantic and other social relationships than less happy groups. They were more extraverted, more agreeable, and less neurotic, and scored lower on several psychopathology scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Compared with the less happy groups, the happiest respondents did not exercise significantly more, participate in religious activities significantly more, or experience more objectively defined good events. No variable was sufficient for happiness, but good social relations were necessary. Members of the happiest group experienced positive, but not ecstatic, feelings most of the time, and they reported occasional negative moods. This suggests that very happy people do have a functioning emotion system that can react appropriately to life events.
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              Affective and Social Self- Regulatory Efficacy Beliefs as Determinants of Positive Thinking and Happiness


                Author and article information

                Psychiatry Investig
                Psychiatry Investig
                Psychiatry Investigation
                Korean Neuropsychiatric Association
                July 2019
                25 July 2019
                : 16
                : 7
                : 539-546
                [1 ]Department of Nursing, Chung Cheong University, Cheongju, Republic of Korea
                [2 ]Department of Nursing, Eulji University, Daejeon, Republic of Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Myung-Haeng Hur, PhD Department of Nursing, Eulji University, 77 Gyeryong-ro 771beon-gil, Junggu, Daejeon 34824, Republic of Korea Tel: +82-42-259-1714, Fax: +82-42-259-1709, E-mail: mhhur@ 123456eulji.ac.kr
                Author information
                Copyright © 2019 Korean Neuropsychiatric Association

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 23 January 2019
                : 11 March 2019
                : 25 April 2019
                Original Article

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                women,happiness,social support,health status
                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                women, happiness, social support, health status


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