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      A Novel Mutation in the D-Box of the Androgen Receptor Gene (S597R) in Two Unrelated Individuals Is Associated with both Normal Phenotype and Severe PAIS

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          Abstract

          Background: An absent or dysfunctional androgen receptor (AR) in 46,XY individuals is the most common cause of various degrees of undermasculinization. Therefore, we routinely perform sequencing of the AR gene in all cases with suspected androgen insensitivity. Methods: In a newborn 46,XY male diagnosed with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome and a phenotypically normal man, who in childhood had bilateral cryptorchidism, the AR was directly sequenced. Seven additional men with cryptorchidism in infancy were chosen as controls. Results: An AR variant (S597R) was identified in both males. Treatment of the newborn with 1% dihydrotestosterone ointment locally, resulted in normal penile size for age. Sequencing of the region in 7 other men with cryptorchidism in infancy did not reveal any additional deviation from the normal reference sequence. Conclusion: The same mutation at this codon can cause significantly different phenotypes as shown by the variation in masculinization of these individuals, with 1 severely affected child and 1 normally developed man. However, the S597R mutation does not seem to be a common cause of undescended testes in boys. Despite the S597R mutation and severe undermasculinization, as seen in the baby, normal male phenotype for age could be achieved with treatment.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Androgen receptor defects: historical, clinical, and molecular perspectives [published erratum appears in Endocr Rev 1995 Aug;16(4):546]

           C Quigley (1995)
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            Two amino acids within the knuckle of the first zinc finger specify DNA response element activation by the glucocorticoid receptor.

            The specificity of target gene activation by steroid receptors is encoded within a small, cysteine-rich domain that is believed to form two zinc-coordinated fingers. Here we show that the ability of glucocorticoid and estrogen receptors to discriminate between their closely related response elements resides in the two amino acids located between the two cysteines in the C-terminal half of the first finger. Unexpectedly, chimeric glucocorticoid receptors harboring portions of the interfinger and/or second finger of the estrogen receptor have the ability to activate transcription from either a GRE- or ERE-containing promoter. We surmise that whereas the "knuckle" region of the first finger may be the primary determinant of sequence recognition, the remainder of the DNA binding domain normally confers structural information required for preventing promiscuous HRE recognition.
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              Differential recognition of target genes by nuclear receptor monomers, dimers, and heterodimers

               C K Glass (1994)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2004
                March 2004
                02 March 2004
                : 61
                : 2
                : 58-62
                Affiliations
                Departments of aUrology and bPaediatrics, Malmö University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden
                Article
                75240 Horm Res 2004;61:58–62
                10.1159/000075240
                14646391
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, References: 22, Pages: 5
                Categories
                Original Paper

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