+1 Recommend
1 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Natural Leishmania ( Viannia) spp. infections in phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Brazilian Amazon region reveal new putative transmission cycles of American cutaneous leishmaniasis Translated title: Les infections naturelles par Leishmania ( Viannia) spp. chez les phlébotomes (Diptera: Psychodidae) de la région amazonienne du Brésil révèlent de nouveaux cycles putatifs de transmission de la leishmaniose cutanée américaine

      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          In Amazonian Brazil the etiological agents of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) belong to at least seven Leishmania species but little is known about the putative phlebotomine sand fly vectors in different biomes. In 2002–2003 a survey of the phlebotomine fauna was undertaken in the “Floresta Nacional do Tapajós”, Belterra municipality, in the lower Amazon region, western Pará State, Brazil, where we recently confirmed the presence of a putative hybrid parasite, L. ( V.) guyanensis × L. ( V.) shawi shawi. Sand flies were collected from Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps, Shannon traps and by aspiration on tree bases. Females were dissected and attempts to isolate any flagellate infections were made by inoculating homogenized midguts into Difco B 45 medium. Isolates were characterized by monoclonal antibodies and isoenzyme electrophoresis. A total of 9,704 sand flies, belonging to 68 species or subspecies, were collected. Infections were found in the following sand flies: L. ( V.) naiffi with Psychodopygus hirsutus hirsutus (1) and Ps. davisi (2); and L. ( V.) shawi shawi with Nyssomyia whitmani (3) and Lutzomyia gomezi (1). These results provide strong evidence of new putative transmission cycles for L. ( V.) naiffi and L. ( V.) s. shawi.

          Translated abstract

          En Amazonie brésilienne les agents étiologiques de la leishmaniose cutanée américaine (LCA) appartiennent à au moins sept espèces de Leishmania, mais on connaît mal les phlébotomes vecteurs dans les différents biomes. En 2002 et 2003 une enquête sur la faune des phlébotomes a été entreprise dans la « Floresta Nacional do Tapajós », commune de Belterra, dans la région inférieure de l’Amazonie, ouest de l’État du Pará, au Brésil, où nous avons récemment confirmé la présence d’un parasite hybride putatif, L. ( V.) guyanensis ×  L. ( V.) shawi shawi. Les phlébotomes ont été recueillis dans des pièges lumineux CDC, des pièges Shannon et par aspiration sur la base des arbres. Les femelles ont été disséquées et on a tenté d’isoler les infections par des flagellés en inoculant des mésogastres homogénéisés dans un milieu Difco B45. Les isolats ont été caractérisés par des anticorps monoclonaux et l’électrophorèse des isoenzymes. Un total de 9704 phlébotomes, appartenant à 68 espèces ou sous-espèces, ont été collectés. Des infections ont été trouvées dans les phlébotomes suivants : L. ( V.) naiffi avec Psychodopygus hirsutus hirsutus (1) et Ps. davisi (2); L. ( V.) shawi shawi avec Nyssomyia whitmani (3) et Lutzomyia gomezi (1). Ces résultats fournissent des preuves solides de nouveaux cycles putatifs de transmission pour L. ( V.) naiffi et L. ( V.) s. shawi.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 30

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Immunopathogenic competences of Leishmania (V.) braziliensis and L. (L.) amazonensis in American cutaneous leishmaniasis.

          The immunopathogenic competences of Leishmania (V.) braziliensis and L. (L.) amazonensis were reviewed in the light of more recent features found in the clinical and immunopathological spectrum of American cutaneous leishmaniasis. It was shown a dichotomy in the interaction between these Leishmania species and human T-cell immune response; while L. (V.) braziliensis shows a clear tendency to lead infection from the localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL), a moderate T-cell hypersensitivity form at the centre of the spectrum, toward to the mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) at the T-cell hypersensitivity pole and with a prominent Th1-type immune response, L. (L.) amazonensis shows an opposite tendency, leading infection to the anergic diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (ADCL) at the T-cell hyposensitivity pole and with a marked Th2-type immune response. Between the central LCL and the two polar MCL and ADCL, the infection can present an intermediary form known as borderline disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis, characterized by an incomplete inhibition of T-cell hypersensitivity but with a evident supremacy of Th1 over Th2 immune response (Th1 > or = Th2). These are probably the main immunopathogenic competences of L. (V.) braziliensis and L. (L.) amazonensis regarding the immune response dichotomy that modulates human infection outcome by these Leishmania parasites.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Proven and putative vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil: aspects of their biology and vectorial competence.

            The aim of the present review is to give relevant information on aspects of the biology and ecology, including the vectorial competence of Lutzomyia sand fly species suggested as vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil. The disease, due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, has been registered in most municipalities in all the Brazilian states and its transmission is associated with more than one sand fly species in each geographical region. A variety of Leishmania species can be found in the Amazon basin, where different epidemiological chains have been detected with the participation of different phlebotomine vectors. Finally, a discussion is presented on some sand fly species found naturally infected by Leishmania, but for which there is as yet no evidence regarding their epidemiological importance.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Clinical and immunopathological spectrum of American cutaneous leishmaniasis with special reference to the disease in Amazonian Brazil: a review.

              The wide variety of Leishmania species responsible for human American cutaneous leishmaniasis combined with the immune mechanisms of the host results in a large spectrum of clinical, histopathological, and immunopathological manifestations. At the middle of this spectrum are the most frequent cases of localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL) caused by members of the subgenera Leishmania and Viannia, which respond well to conventional therapy. The two pathogenicity extremes of the spectrum generally recognized are represented at the hypersensitivity pole by mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) and at the hyposensitivity pole by anergic diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (ADCL). Following the present study on the clinical, histopathological and immunopathological features of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Amazonian Brazil, we propose the use of the term "borderline disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis" for the disseminated form of the disease, due to parasites of the subgenera Leishmania and Viannia, which might be regarded as intermediate between LCL and the extreme pathogenicity poles MCL and ADCL.

                Author and article information

                EDP Sciences
                27 May 2016
                : 23
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2016/01 )
                [1 ] Parasitology Department, Evandro Chagas Institute (Surveillance Secretary of Health, Ministry of Health) Ananindeua Pará State Brazil
                [2 ] Tropical Medicine Nucleus, Federal University of Pará Belém Pará State Brazil
                [3 ] Biomedical Sciences Institute, São Paulo University São Paulo State Brazil
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: fernandotobias@ 123456iec.pa.gov.br

                In memoriam

                parasite160021 10.1051/parasite/2016022
                © A.A.A. de Souza et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 51, Pages: 10
                Research Article


                Comment on this article

                Similar content 330

                Cited by 11

                Most referenced authors 323