+1 Recommend
1 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found

      Various Roles of Th Cytokine mRNA Expression in Different Forms of Glomerulonephritis

      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          Background: Kidney disease is characterized by injurious immune responses to self or foreign antigens. The development and maintenance of immune responses generally involves activation of T lymphocytes. We evaluated mRNA expression patterns of T-cell cytokines to identify the principal Th-cell subset involved in the development of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antigen-associated pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis (ANCAGN), membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN), and membranous nephropathy (MN). Methods: Kidney biopsy specimens from ANCAGN (17), MPGN (11), and MN (14) patients were evaluated for mRNA expression of various T-cell cytokines. Results: Interferon-γ mRNA expression was detected in both ANCAGN and MPGN, but not in MN patients. Furthermore, mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-12, a Th1-associated cytokine, was lower in MN patients than in ANCAGN and MPGN patients. In contrast, a significantly higher expression of IL-4 and IL-5 was observed in MN than in ANCAGN and MPGN patients. In the analyses of Th17-associated cytokine expression, a significantly higher expression of IL-6 and IL-17 was observed in ANCAGN than in MPGN and MN patients. No significant differences were observed in the expression of these cytokines between MPGN and MN patients. With regard to Treg-associated cytokines, a significantly higher IL-10 expression was observed in MN than in ANCAGN patients, and a significantly higher transforming growth factor-β expression was observed in MN than in ANCAGN and MPGN patients. Similarly, Foxp3 expression was significantly higher in MN. Conclusion: Th1 and Th17 immune responses in ANCAGN, the Th1 response in MPGN, and Th2 and Treg responses in MN patients may be integral for the distinct histological features of these diseases.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 22

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Regulatory T cells in transplantation tolerance.

          The identification and characterization of regulatory T (T(Reg)) cells that can control immune responsiveness to alloantigens have opened up exciting opportunities for new therapies in transplantation. After exposure to alloantigens in vivo, alloantigen-specific immunoregulatory activity is enriched in a population of CD4+ T cells that express high levels of CD25. In vivo, common mechanisms seem to underpin the activity of CD4+CD25+ T(Reg) cells in both naive and manipulated hosts. However, the origin, allorecognition properties and molecular basis for the suppressive activity of CD4+CD25+ T(Reg) cells, as well as their relationship to other populations of regulatory cells that exist after transplantation, remain a matter of debate..
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Proposal for a new clinical entity, IgG4-positive multiorgan lymphoproliferative syndrome: analysis of 64 cases of IgG4-related disorders.

            Mikulicz's disease (MD) has been considered as one manifestation of Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Recently, it has also been considered as an IgG(4)-related disorder. To determine the differences between IgG(4)-related disorders including MD and SS. A study was undertaken to investigate patients with MD and IgG(4)-related disorders registered in Japan and to set up provisional criteria for the new clinical entity IgG(4)-positive multiorgan lymphoproliferative syndrome (IgG(4)+MOLPS). The preliminary diagnostic criteria include raised serum levels of IgG(4) (>135 mg/dl) and infiltration of IgG(4)(+) plasma cells in the tissue (IgG(4)+/IgG+ plasma cells >50%) with fibrosis or sclerosis. The clinical features, laboratory data and pathologies of 64 patients with IgG(4)+MOLPS and 31 patients with typical SS were compared. The incidence of xerostomia, xerophthalmia and arthralgia, rheumatoid factor and antinuclear, antiSS-A/Ro and antiSS-B/La antibodies was significantly lower in patients with IgG(4)+MOLPS than in those with typical SS. Allergic rhinitis and autoimmune pancreatitis were significantly more frequent and total IgG, IgG(2), IgG(4) and IgE levels were significantly increased in IgG(4)+MOLPS. Histological specimens from patients with IgG(4)+MOLPS revealed marked IgG(4)+ plasma cell infiltration. Many patients with IgG(4)+MOLPS had lymphocytic follicle formation, but lymphoepithelial lesions were rare. Few IgG(4)+ cells were seen in the tissue of patients with typical SS. Thirty-eight patients with IgG(4)+MOLPS treated with glucocorticoids showed marked clinical improvement. Despite similarities in the involved organs, there are considerable clinical and pathological differences between IgG(4)+MOLPS and SS. Based on the clinical features and good response to glucocorticoids, we propose a new clinical entity: IgG(4)+MOLPS.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Interleukin-10 induces a long-term antigen-specific anergic state in human CD4+ T cells

              Human CD4+ T cells, activated by allogeneic monocytes in a primary mixed lymphocyte reaction in the presence of exogenous interleukin (IL) 10, specifically failed to proliferate after restimulation with the same alloantigens. A comparable state of T cell unresponsiveness could be induced by activation of CD4+ T cells by cross-linked anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in the presence of exogenous IL-10. The anergic T cells failed to produce IL-2, IL-5, IL-10, interferon gamma, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and granulocyte/macrophage colony- stimulating factor. The IL-10-induced anergic state was long-lasting. T cell anergy could not be reversed after restimulation of the cells with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 mAbs, although CD3 and CD28 expression was normal. In addition, restimulation of anergized T cells with anti-CD3 mAbs induced normal Ca2+ fluxes and resulted in increased CD3, CD28, and class II major histocompatibility complex expression, indicating that calcineurin-mediated signaling occurs in these anergic cells. However, the expression of the IL-2 receptor alpha chain was not upregulated, which may account for the failure of exogenous IL-2 to reverse the anergic state. Interestingly, anergic T cells and their nonanergic counterparts showed comparable levels of proliferation and cytokine production after activation with phorbol myristate acetate and Ca2+ ionophore, indicating that a direct activation of a protein kinase C-dependent pathway can overcome the tolerizing effect of IL-10. Taken together, these data demonstrate that IL-10 induces T cell anergy and therefore may play an important role in the induction and maintenance of antigen-specific T cell tolerance.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                August 2013
                30 July 2013
                : 38
                : 2
                : 115-123
                aDivision of Nephrology and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, and bDepartment of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, and cDivision of Nephrology, Endocrinology and Vascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan
                Author notes
                *Katsuhisa Miyake, MD, PhD, Division of Nephrology and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, 7-45-1 Nanakuma, Jonann-ku, Fukuoka 814-0180 (Japan), E-Mail
                353102 Am J Nephrol 2013;38:115-123
                © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 2, Pages: 9
                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research


                Comment on this article