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      Thoracoscopic mesh implantation as a definitive treatment approach for peritoneal dialysis-associated hydrothorax


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          Pleuroperitoneal leakage with the formation of hydrothorax is a rare complication of peritoneal dialysis, usually necessitating termination of peritoneal dialysis. We hypothesized that implantation of a polypropylene mesh on the diaphragm using video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery might induce permanent closure of pleuroperitoneal leakage. We report a case series of n = 12 peritoneal dialysis patients with pleuroperitoneal leakage and right-sided hydrothorax who underwent video-assisted thoracoscopy with mesh implantation from 2011 to 2020. Pleuroperitoneal leakage had been confirmed before surgery by intraperitoneal administration of toluidine blue, contrast-enhanced computer tomography or glucose determination from the pleural effusion. Median time from the start of peritoneal dialysis to manifestation of pleuroperitoneal leakage was 52 days. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery revealed multiple penetration points in the tendinous part of the diaphragm in all patients, which appeared as blebs. These were closed by covering the whole diaphragm with a polypropylene mesh. In all patients, peritoneal dialysis was paused for three months and bridged by hemodialysis. After restarting peritoneal dialysis and a median follow-up time of 1.9 years, none of the patients experienced a recurrence of pleuroperitoneal leakage. This case series demonstrates that pleuroperitoneal leakage in peritoneal dialysis patients can be permanently closed using thoracoscopic mesh implantation and allows peritoneal dialysis to be continued as renal replacement therapy.

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          A review of available prosthetics for ventral hernia repair.

          To review mesh products currently available for ventral hernia repair and to evaluate their efficacy in complex repair, including contaminated and reoperative fields. Although commonly referenced, the concept of the ideal prosthetic has never been fully realized. With the development of newer prosthetics and approaches to the ventral hernia repair, many surgeons do not fully understand the properties of the available prosthetics or the circumstances that warrant the use of a specific mesh. A systematic review of published literature from 1951 to June of 2009 was conducted to identify articles relating to ventral hernia repairs and the use of prosthetics in herniorrhaphy. Important differences exist between the synthetics, composites, and biologic prosthetics used for ventral hernia repair in terms of mechanics, cost, and the ideal situation in which each should be used. The use of synthetic mesh remains an appropriate solution for most ventral hernia repairs. Laparoscopic ventral hernia repair has created a niche for both expanded polytetrafluoroethylene and composite mesh, as they are suited to intraperitoneal placement. Preliminary studies have demonstrated that the newer biologic prosthetics are reasonable options for hernia repair in contaminated fields and for large abdominal wall defects; however, more studies need to be done before advocating the use of these biologics in other settings.
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            Acute Hydrothorax in Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis – A Collaborative Study of 161 Centers

            Follow-up studies on 3,195 patients from 161 centers in Japan undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) were performed for 1–104 months to clarify the incidence as well as the clinical features of acute hydrothorax. In these studies, 50 patients (1.6%) developed this complication. Twenty-seven (54%) were men, and 23 (46%) were women, ranging in age form 6 to 79 (average 49) years. The interval between onset of CAPD and hydrothorax ranged from 1 day to 8 years. Four had left-sided, and 2 had bilateral hydrothorax, but the majority (88%) were right-sided. Dyspnea was experienced by 37 of these 50 patients, but the remaining 13 (26%) patients were asymptomatic. Hydrothorax was fully resolved in 27 of them following a brief interruption of CAPD or the combined use of small exchange volumes in a semi-sitting position and pleurodesis with tetracycline or other agents. The remaining 23 patients (46%) were switched to hemodialysis permanently. Despite recurrence, 1 patient continued successfully on CAPD. It was concluded that acute hydrothorax is one important possible complication, although the risk may be low. Constant surveillance is necessary to detect pleural effusions in patients during CAPD.
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              Video-assisted thoracoscopic talc pleurodesis is effective for maintenance of peritoneal dialysis in acute hydrothorax complicating peritoneal dialysis.

              Acute, massive, unilateral hydrothorax is an uncommon but well-recognized complication of peritoneal dialysis. Its clinical course and treatment outcome after a recently advocated technique of video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) talc pleurodesis remains unclear. Between July 1998 and March 2002, among 475 CAPD patients in two regional hospitals in Hong Kong, nine patients (three men, six women, mean age 53+/-12 years) developed acute hydrothorax due to pleuroperitoneal communication (R=8, L=1) within 5.8+/-4.2 months (median, 5.2 m; range, 2 days to 11.6 months) of commencing peritoneal dialysis. Analysis of simultaneously obtained peritoneal and pleural fluid in all subjects only showed concordance in protein content (consistently<4 g/l), while fluid glucose and lactate dehydrogenase levels were not comparable. The methylene blue test was negative (n=4). Radionuclide scan (n=6) and contrast CT peritoneography (CTP, n=3) detected pleuroperitoneal communication in half and one-third of the patients, respectively. All patients underwent pleurodesis achieved by talc insufflation into the pleural cavity under VATS guidance. All patients were successfully returned to peritoneal dialysis. After a mean follow-up of 18.8+/-12.5 months, hydrothorax recurred in one patient (at 7 months after pleurodesis), who was successfully treated by repeating the procedure. Hydrothorax complicating CAPD is more commonly right-sided, and tends to occur within the first year of starting peritoneal dialysis. Isotope scan and CTP are insensitive in diagnosing pleuroperitoneal communication. A low pleural fluid protein content is the most consistent biochemical finding. VATS talc pleurodesis is a safe and reliable treatment of choice that allows sustained continuation of CAPD with low recurrence rate.

                Author and article information

                Updates Surg
                Updates Surg
                Updates in Surgery
                Springer International Publishing (Cham )
                21 August 2022
                21 August 2022
                : 74
                : 6
                : 2011-2017
                [1 ]GRID grid.411544.1, ISNI 0000 0001 0196 8249, Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, , University Hospital Tübingen, ; Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany
                [2 ]GRID grid.411544.1, ISNI 0000 0001 0196 8249, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Nephrology, , University Hospital Tübingen, ; Tuebingen, Germany
                [3 ]GRID grid.10392.39, ISNI 0000 0001 2190 1447, Institute of Diabetes Research and Metabolic Diseases (IDM), , Helmholtz Center Munich at the University Tübingen, ; Tuebingen, Germany
                [4 ]GRID grid.10392.39, ISNI 0000 0001 2190 1447, German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), , The University Tübingen, ; Tuebingen, Germany
                Author information
                © The Author(s) 2022

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                : 3 March 2022
                : 9 August 2022
                Funded by: Universitätsklinikum Tübingen (8868)
                Original Article
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                © Italian Society of Surgery (SIC) 2022

                peritoneal dialysis,pleuroperitoneal leakage,hydrothorax,vats,mesh,diaphragm
                peritoneal dialysis, pleuroperitoneal leakage, hydrothorax, vats, mesh, diaphragm


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