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      Root perforations: aetiology, management strategies and outcomes. The hole truth

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      British Dental Journal

      Springer Science and Business Media LLC

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          Physical and chemical properties of a new root-end filling material.

          This study determined the chemical composition, pH, and radiopacity of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), and also compared the setting time, compressive strength, and solubility of this material with those of amalgam, Super-EBA, and Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM). X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer in conjunction with the scanning electron microscope were used to determine the composition of MTA, and the pH value of MTA was assessed with a pH meter using a temperature-compensated electrode. The radiopacity of MTA was determined according to the method described by the International Organization for Standardization. The setting time and compressive strength of these materials were determined according to methods recommended by the British Standards Institution. The degree of solubility of the materials was assessed according to modified American Dental Association specifications. The results showed that the main molecules present in MTA are calcium and phosphorous ions. In addition, MTA has a pH of 10.2 initially, which rises to 12.5 three hours after mixing. MTA is more radiopaque than Super-EBA and IRM. Amalgam had the shortest setting time (4 min) and MTA the longest (2 h 45 min). At 24 h MTA had the lowest compressive strength (40 MPa) among the materials, but it increased after 21 days to 67 MPa. Finally, except for IRM, none of the materials tested showed any solubility under the conditions of this study.
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            Clinical applications of mineral trioxide aggregate.

            An experimental material, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), has recently been investigated as a potential alternative restorative material to the presently used materials in endodontics. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that MTA prevents microleakage, is biocompatible, and promotes regeneration of the original tissues when it is placed in contact with the dental pulp or periradicular tissues. This article describes the clinical procedures for application of MTA in capping of pulps with reversible pulpitis, apexification, repair of root perforations nonsurgically and surgically, as well as its use as a root-end filling material.
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              Sealing ability of a mineral trioxide aggregate for repair of lateral root perforations.

              Amalgam, IRM, and a mineral trioxide aggregate were tested for repair of experimentally created root perforations. Fifty sound, extracted mandibular and maxillary molars were used in this study. A perforation was created on the mesial root surface at about a 45-degree angle to the long axis of each tooth. The tooth was then placed into a saline-soaked "Oasis" to simulate a clinical condition. After placing the repair materials into the perforations, the teeth were kept for 4 wk in the Oasis model. The perforation sites were then stained with methylene blue for 48 h, sectioned, and examined under a dissecting microscope. The results showed that the mineral trioxide aggregate had significantly less leakage than IRM or amalgam (p < 0.05). The mineral trioxide aggregate also showed the least overfilling tendency while IRM showed the least underfilling tendency.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                British Dental Journal
                Br Dent J
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0007-0610
                1476-5373
                February 2016
                February 26 2016
                February 2016
                : 220
                : 4
                : 171-180
                10.1038/sj.bdj.2016.132
                © 2016

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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