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      Alginate oligosaccharide indirectly affects toll-like receptor signaling via the inhibition of microRNA-29b in aneurysm patients after endovascular aortic repair

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          Abstract

          Endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) is often followed by aneurysm recurrence. Alginate oligosaccharide (AOS) has potential antitumor properties as a natural product while the related mechanisms remain unclear. Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is associated with inflammatory activity of aneurysm and may be affected by miR-29b. Thus, inhibitory function of AOS on aneurysms was explored by measuring the important molecules in TLR4 signaling. After EVAR, a total of 248 aortic aneurysm patients were recruited and randomly assigned into two groups: AOS group (AG, oral administration 10-mg AOS daily) and control group (CG, placebo daily). The size of residual aneurysms, aneurysm recurrence, and side effects were investigated. Aneurysm recurrence was determined by Kaplan–Meier analysis. After 2 years, eight and two patients died in the CG and AG, respectively. The sizes of residual aneurysms were significantly larger in the CG than in the AG ( P<0.05). The incidence of aneurysm recurrence was also significantly higher in the CG than in the AG ( P<0.05). AOS treatment reduced the levels of miR-29b, TLR4, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B), interleukin 1 (IL-1) beta, and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Overexpression and silence of miR-29b increased and reduced the level of TLR4, phospho-p65 NF-kappa B, phospho-p38 MAPK, IL-1 beta, and IL-6. Spearman’s rank correlation analysis shows that the level of miR-29b is positively related to the levels of TLR4, NF-kappa B, IL-1 beta, and IL-6 ( P<0.05). Thus, AOS represses aneurysm recurrence by indirectly affecting TLR signaling via miR-29b.

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          Most cited references 38

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          The diagnosis of thoracic aortic dissection by noninvasive imaging procedures.

          This study was designed to assess the safety and reliability of new noninvasive imaging methods as compared with aortography in the diagnosis of dissection of the thoracic aorta. One hundred ten patients with clinically suspected aortic dissection followed a diagnostic protocol that included transthoracic and transesophageal color-flow Doppler echocardiography (TTE and TEE), contrast-enhanced x-ray computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Imaging results were compared in a blinded fashion and validated independently against intraoperative findings in 62 patients, autopsy findings in 7, and the results of contrast angiography in 64. The sensitivities of MRI, TEE and x-ray CT for detecting dissection were similar, at 98.3, 97.7, and 98.3 percent, respectively; TTE had a sensitivity of only 59.3 percent (P < 0.005). The specificities of both TTE (83.0 percent) and TEE (76.9 percent) were lower than those of x-ray CT (87.1 percent) and MRI (97.8 percent; P < 0.05), mainly as a result of false positive findings in the ascending aorta. MRI and x-ray CT were more sensitive than TTE in detecting the formation of thrombus in the entire thoracic aorta (P < 0.05), but were not superior to TEE in this regard. CT was not effective in detecting an entry site or aortic regurgitation, but MRI and TEE accurately identified both. Two patients died during or soon after CT and TEE, and three died between retrograde angiography and surgery. A noninvasive diagnostic strategy using MRI in all hemodynamically stable patients and TEE in patients who are too unstable to be moved should be considered the optimal approach to detecting dissection of the thoracic aorta. Comprehensive and detailed evaluation can thus be reduced to a single noninvasive diagnostic test in the investigation of suspected dissection of the thoracic aorta.
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            Oxidative Stress and Liver Cancer: Etiology and Therapeutic Targets

            Accumulating evidence has indicated that oxidative stress (OS) is associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the mechanisms remain largely unknown. Normally, OS occurs when the body receives any danger signal—from either an internal or external source—and further induces DNA oxidative damage and abnormal protein expression, placing the body into a state of vulnerability to the development of various diseases such as cancer. There are many factors involved in liver carcinogenesis, including hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, alcohol abuse, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The relationship between OS and HCC has recently been attracting increasing attention. Therefore, elucidation of the impact of OS on the development of liver carcinogenesis is very important for the prevention and treatment of liver cancer. This review focuses mainly on the relationship between OS and the development of HCC from the perspective of cellular and molecular mechanisms and the etiology and therapeutic targets of HCC.
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              Stent-assisted coiling in endovascular treatment of 500 consecutive cerebral aneurysms with long-term follow-up.

               S Geyik,  K Yavuz (corresponding) ,  N Yurttutan (2013)
              Stent-assisted coil embolization has become one of the most preferred techniques in the treatment of wide-neck intracranial aneurysms; however, long-term patency and safety of the self-expanding neurostents and their role in durability of the endovascular treatment has remained ambiguous. We sought to retrospectively examine the long-term results of self-expanding stent usage in conjunction with coil embolization in treatment of wide-neck cerebral aneurysms. We coiled 500 wide-neck cerebral aneurysms with different types of self-expanding neurostent assistance in 468 patients. Patient and aneurysm characteristics, pharmacologic therapy protocol, complications, and initial occlusion grades were analyzed. Patients underwent angiographic follow-up at 6 months to 7 years after treatment. DSA or MRA images of all patients were analyzed to assess the occlusion rate of aneurysms and patency of the parent artery. Enterprise (n = 340), Solitaire (n = 98), Wingspan (n = 41), LEO (n = 16), and Neuroform (n = 5) stent systems were used in this series. Stent-related thromboembolic events occurred in 21 patients and intraoperative rupture occurred in 4 patients. Initially, complete occlusion was achieved in 42.2% of the aneurysms, and, according to the last follow-up data, the rate had progressed to 90.8%. Recanalization rate at 6 months was 8%, whereas the late recanalization rate was 2%. The use of stents in endovascular treatment provides high rates of complete occlusion and low rates of recurrence at a long-term follow-up study.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2017
                01 September 2017
                : 11
                : 2565-2579
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Vascular Surgery, The Second People’s Hospital of Yunnan Province, Kunming, China
                [2 ]Department of Vascular Surgery, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming, China
                [3 ]Department of Vascular Surgery, Vascular Surgery Centre in Yunnan Province, Kunming, China
                [4 ]Department of Vascular Surgery, Abdominal Surgery Centre in Yunnan Province, Kunming, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Zhenhuan Ma, Department of Vascular Surgery, The Second People’s Hospital of Yunnan Province, 176 Qingnian Lu, Kunming 650021, China, Tel +86 871 515 6650, Email zhenhuanyy@ 123456126.com
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                dddt-11-2565
                10.2147/DDDT.S140206
                5590761
                © 2017 Yang et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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