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      Challenges of the Oral Cancer Burden in India

      1 , 2 , *

      Journal of Cancer Epidemiology

      Hindawi Publishing Corporation

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          Abstract

          Oral cancer ranks in the top three of all cancers in India, which accounts for over thirty per cent of all cancers reported in the country and oral cancer control is quickly becoming a global health priority. This paper provides a synopsis of the incidence of oral cancer in India by focusing on its measurement in cancer registries across the country. Based on the International Classification of Disease case definition adopted by the World Health Organisation, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer, this review systematically examines primary and secondary data where the incidence or prevalence of oral cancer is known to be directly reported. Variability in age-adjusted incidence with crude incidence is projected to increase by 2030. Challenges focus on measurement of disease incidence and disease-specific risk behavior, predominantly, alcohol, and tobacco use. Future research should be aimed at improving quality of data for early detection and prevention of oral cancer.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Expansion of cancer care and control in countries of low and middle income: a call to action.

          Substantial inequalities exist in cancer survival rates across countries. In addition to prevention of new cancers by reduction of risk factors, strategies are needed to close the gap between developed and developing countries in cancer survival and the effects of the disease on human suffering. We challenge the public health community's assumption that cancers will remain untreated in poor countries, and note the analogy to similarly unfounded arguments from more than a decade ago against provision of HIV treatment. In resource-constrained countries without specialised services, experience has shown that much can be done to prevent and treat cancer by deployment of primary and secondary caregivers, use of off-patent drugs, and application of regional and global mechanisms for financing and procurement. Furthermore, several middle-income countries have included cancer treatment in national health insurance coverage with a focus on people living in poverty. These strategies can reduce costs, increase access to health services, and strengthen health systems to meet the challenge of cancer and other diseases. In 2009, we formed the Global Task Force on Expanded Access to Cancer Care and Control in Developing Countries, which is composed of leaders from the global health and cancer care communities, and is dedicated to proposal, implementation, and evaluation of strategies to advance this agenda. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975–2005, Featuring Trends in Lung Cancer, Tobacco Use, and Tobacco Control

            Background The American Cancer Society, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the National Cancer Institute (NCI), and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) collaborate annually to provide updated information on cancer occurrence and trends in the United States. This year’s report includes trends in lung cancer incidence and death rates, tobacco use, and tobacco control by state of residence. Methods Information on invasive cancers was obtained from the NCI, CDC, and NAACCR and information on mortality from the CDC's National Center for Health Statistics. Annual percentage changes in the age-standardized incidence and death rates (2000 US population standard) for all cancers combined and for the top 15 cancers were estimated by joinpoint analysis of long-term (1975–2005) trends and by least squares linear regression of short-term (1996–2005) trends. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Both incidence and death rates from all cancers combined decreased statistically significantly (P < .05) in men and women overall and in most racial and ethnic populations. These decreases were driven largely by declines in both incidence and death rates for the three most common cancers in men (lung, colorectum, and prostate) and for two of the three leading cancers in women (breast and colorectum), combined with a leveling off of lung cancer death rates in women. Although the national trend in female lung cancer death rates has stabilized since 2003, after increasing for several decades, there is prominent state and regional variation. Lung cancer incidence and/or death rates among women increased in 18 states, 16 of them in the South or Midwest, where, on average, the prevalence of smoking was higher and the annual percentage decrease in current smoking among adult women was lower than in the West and Northeast. California was the only state with decreasing lung cancer incidence and death rates in women. Conclusions Although the decrease in overall cancer incidence and death rates is encouraging, large state and regional differences in lung cancer trends among women underscore the need to maintain and strengthen many state tobacco control programs.
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              Effect of screening on oral cancer mortality in Kerala, India: a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

              Oral cancer is common in men from developing countries, and is increased by tobacco and alcohol use. We aimed to assess the effect of visual screening on oral cancer mortality in a cluster-randomised controlled trial in India. Of the 13 clusters chosen for the study, seven were randomised to three rounds of oral visual inspection by trained health workers at 3-year intervals and six to a control group during 1996-2004, in Trivandrum district, Kerala, India. Healthy participants aged 35 years and older were eligible for the study. Screen-positive people were referred for clinical examination by doctors, biopsy, and treatment. Outcome measures were survival, case fatality, and oral cancer mortality. Oral cancer mortality in the study groups was analysed and compared by use of cluster analysis. Analysis was by intention to treat. Of the 96,517 eligible participants in the intervention group, 87,655 (91%) were screened at least once, 53,312 (55%) twice, and 29,102 (30%) three times. Of the 5145 individuals who screened positive, 3218 (63%) complied with referral. 95,356 eligible participants in the control group received standard care. 205 oral cancer cases and 77 oral cancer deaths were recorded in the intervention group compared with 158 cases and 87 deaths in the control group (mortality rate ratio 0.79 [95% CI 0.51-1.22]). 70 oral cancer deaths took place in users of tobacco or alcohol, or both, in the intervention group, compared with 85 in controls (0.66 [0.45-0.95]). The mortality rate ratio was 0.57 (0.35-0.93) in male tobacco or alcohol users and 0.78 (0.43-1.42) in female users. : Oral visual screening can reduce mortality in high-risk individuals and has the potential of preventing at least 37,000 oral cancer deaths worldwide.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Cancer Epidemiol
                J Cancer Epidemiol
                JCE
                Journal of Cancer Epidemiology
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                1687-8558
                1687-8566
                2012
                4 October 2012
                : 2012
                Affiliations
                1Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Forvie Site, Robinson Way, Cambridge CB2 0SR, UK
                2Pembroke College, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1RF, UK
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Hermann Brenner

                Article
                10.1155/2012/701932
                3471448
                23093961
                Copyright © 2012 Ken Russell Coelho.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review Article

                Oncology & Radiotherapy

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