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      Gambling disorder-related illegal acts: Regression model of associated factors

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          Abstract

          Background and aims

          Gambling disorder-related illegal acts (GDRIA) are often crucial events for gamblers and/or their entourage. This study was designed to determine the predictive factors of GDRIA.

          Methods

          Participants were 372 gamblers reporting at least three DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association, 2000) criteria. They were assessed on the basis of sociodemographic characteristics, gambling-related characteristics, their personality profile, and psychiatric comorbidities. A multiple logistic regression was performed to identify the relevant predictors of GDRIA and their relative contribution to the prediction of the presence of GDRIA.

          Results

          Multivariate analysis revealed a higher South Oaks Gambling Scale score, comorbid addictive disorders, and a lower level of income as GDRIA predictors.

          Discussion and conclusion

          An original finding of this study was that the comorbid addictive disorder effect might be mediated by a disinhibiting effect of stimulant substances on GDRIA. Further studies are necessary to replicate these results, especially in a longitudinal design, and to explore specific therapeutic interventions.

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          Most cited references38

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          The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). A short diagnostic structured interview: reliability and validity according to the CIDI

          The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) is a short diagnostic structured interview (DSI) developed in France and the United States to explore 17 disorders according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-III-R diagnostic criteria. It is fully structured to allow administration by non-specialized interviewers. In order to keep it short it focuses on the existence of current disorders. For each disorder, one or two screening questions rule out the diagnosis when answered negatively. Probes for severity, disability or medically explained symptoms are not explored symptom-by-symptom. Two joint papers present the inter-rater and test-retest reliability of the MINI the validity versus the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (this paper) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R patients (SCID) (joint paper). Three-hundred and forty-six patients (296 psychiatric and 50 non-psychiatric) were administered the MINI and the CIDI ‘gold standard’. Forty two were interviewed by two investigators and 42 interviewed subsequently within two days. Interviewers were trained to use both instruments. The mean duration of the interview was 21 min with the MINI and 92 for corresponding sections of the CIDI. Kappa coefficient, sensitivity and specificity were good or very good for all diagnoses with the exception of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) (kappa = 0.36), agoraphobia (sensitivity = 0.59) and bulimia (kappa = 0.53). Interrater and test-retest reliability were good. The main reasons for discrepancies were identified. The MINI provided reliable DSM-III-R diagnoses within a short time frame, The study permitted improvements in the formulations for GAD and agoraphobia in the current DSM-IV version of the MINI.
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            A psychobiological model of temperament and character.

            In this study, we describe a psychobiological model of the structure and development of personality that accounts for dimensions of both temperament and character. Previous research has confirmed four dimensions of temperament: novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, and persistence, which are independently heritable, manifest early in life, and involve preconceptual biases in perceptual memory and habit formation. For the first time, we describe three dimensions of character that mature in adulthood and influence personal and social effectiveness by insight learning about self-concepts. Self-concepts vary according to the extent to which a person identifies the self as (1) an autonomous individual, (2) an integral part of humanity, and (3) an integral part of the universe as a whole. Each aspect of self-concept corresponds to one of three character dimensions called self-directedness, cooperativeness, and self-transcendence, respectively. We also describe the conceptual background and development of a self-report measure of these dimensions, the Temperament and Character Inventory. Data on 300 individuals from the general population support the reliability and structure of these seven personality dimensions. We discuss the implications for studies of information processing, inheritance, development, diagnosis, and treatment.
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              A pathways model of problem and pathological gambling

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                jba
                2006
                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                J Behav Addict
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2062-5871
                2063-5303
                13 February 2017
                March 2016
                : 6
                : 1
                : 64-73
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ]Psychiatry and Addictology Department, Paul Brousse University Hospital of Villejuif, Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP) , Paris, France
                [ 2 ]Pole of Psychiatry 75G04, Henry Ey Hospital, Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne , Paris, France
                [ 3 ]Clinical Investigation Unit BALANCED “BehaviorAL AddictioNs and ComplEx mood Disorders”, Department of Addictology and Psychiatry, University Hospital of Nantes , Nantes, France
                [ 4 ]EA 4275 SPHERE “bioStatistics, Pharmacoepidemiology and Human sciEnces Research tEam”, Faculties of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nantes , Nantes, France
                [ 5 ]EA 4430 CLIPSYD “CLInique PSYchanalyse Développement”, University of Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense , Paris, France
                [ 6 ] Louis Mourier Hospital of Colombes, Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP) , Paris, France
                [ 7 ]Marmottan Medical Center, GPS Perray-Vaucluse , Paris, France
                [ 8 ]Department of Adult Psychiatry, Sainte-Marguerite University Hospital of Marseille , Marseille, France
                [ 9 ]Psychiatry Laboratory, Sanpsy CNRS USR 3413, University of Bordeaux and Charles Perrens Hospital , Bordeaux, France
                [ 10 ]Psychiatry Department, University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand , Clermont-Ferrand, France
                [ 11 ]Unit of Methodology and Biostatistics, University Hospital of Nantes , Nantes, France
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Dr. Mohamed Ali Gorsane, MD; 15, avenue de la Porte de Choisy, 75013 Paris, France; Present address: CESP, INSERM, Univ. Paris-Sud, UVSQ, Université Paris-Saclay, Villejuif 94800, France; Phone: +33 169254381; Fax: +33 169254383; E-mail: gorsane_m_a@ 123456yahoo.fr

                Members of the JEU Group: Marie Grall-Bronnec, Gaëlle Challet-Bouju, Jean-Luc Vénisse, Lucia Romo, Cindy Legauffre, Caroline Dubertret, Irène Codina, Marc Valleur, Marc Auriacombe, Mélina Fatséas, Jean-Marc Alexandre, Pierre-Michel Llorca, Isabelle Chéreau-Boudet, Christophe Lançon, David Magalon, Michel Reynaud, and Mohamed Ali Gorsane.

                Article
                10.1556/2006.6.2017.003
                5572995
                28198636
                9da7174b-3c2f-4904-8219-acf8024c76aa
                © 2017 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                : 17 August 2016
                : 10 January 2017
                : 15 January 2017
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 6, Equations: 0, References: 33, Pages: 10
                Funding
                Funding sources: This study was supported by both the joint support of the French Inter-departmental Mission for the fight against drugs and drug addiction (MILDT) and the French National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM), as part of the call for research projects launched by these two organizations in 2007, and a grant from the French Ministry of Health (PHRC 2009 – RCB 2008-A01188-47). There were no constraints on publishing. This research was conducted at the initiative of and coordinated by the gambling section of the Clinical Investigation Unit BALANCED “BehaviorAL AddictioNs and ComplEx mood Disorders” (the Reference Centre for Excessive Gambling) of the University Hospital of Nantes, who is the sponsor of this study.
                Categories
                FULL-LENGTH REPORT

                Medicine,Psychology,Social & Behavioral Sciences,Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                gambling disorder,predictors,addiction,illegal acts,DSM

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