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      Gambling disorder-related illegal acts: Regression model of associated factors

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          Abstract

          Background and aims

          Gambling disorder-related illegal acts (GDRIA) are often crucial events for gamblers and/or their entourage. This study was designed to determine the predictive factors of GDRIA.

          Methods

          Participants were 372 gamblers reporting at least three DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association, 2000) criteria. They were assessed on the basis of sociodemographic characteristics, gambling-related characteristics, their personality profile, and psychiatric comorbidities. A multiple logistic regression was performed to identify the relevant predictors of GDRIA and their relative contribution to the prediction of the presence of GDRIA.

          Results

          Multivariate analysis revealed a higher South Oaks Gambling Scale score, comorbid addictive disorders, and a lower level of income as GDRIA predictors.

          Discussion and conclusion

          An original finding of this study was that the comorbid addictive disorder effect might be mediated by a disinhibiting effect of stimulant substances on GDRIA. Further studies are necessary to replicate these results, especially in a longitudinal design, and to explore specific therapeutic interventions.

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          Most cited references 39

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          A psychobiological model of temperament and character

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            A pathways model of problem and pathological gambling.

            At the moment, there is no single conceptual theoretical model of gambling that adequately accounts for the multiple biological, psychological and ecological variables contributing to the development of pathological gambling. Advances in this area are hampered by imprecise definitions of pathological gambling, failure to distinguish between gambling problems and problem gamblers and a tendency to assume that pathological gamblers form one, homogeneous population with similar psychological principles applying equally to all members of the class. The purpose of this paper is to advance a pathways model that integrates the complex array of biological, personality, developmental, cognitive, learning theory and ecological determinants of problem and pathological gambling. It is proposed that three distinct subgroups of gamblers manifesting impaired control over their behaviour can be identified. These groups include (a) behaviourally conditioned problem gamblers, (b) emotionally vulnerable problem gamblers and (c) antisocial, impulsivist problem gamblers. The implications for clinical management are discussed.
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              Gambling disorders.

              Gambling disorders, including pathological gambling and problem gambling, have received increased attention from clinicians and researchers over the past three decades since gambling opportunities have expanded around the world. This Seminar reviews prevalence, causes and associated features, screening and diagnosis, and treatment approaches. Gambling disorders affect 0·2-5·3% of adults worldwide, although measurement and prevalence varies according to the screening instruments and methods used, and availability and accessibility of gambling opportunities. Several distinct treatment approaches have been favourably evaluated, such as cognitive behavioural and brief treatment models and pharmacological interventions. Although promising, family therapy and support from Gamblers Anonymous are less well empirically supported. Gambling disorders are highly comorbid with other mental health and substance use disorders, and a further understanding is needed of both the causes and treatment implications of this disorder. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                jba
                JBA
                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                J Behav Addict
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2062-5871
                2063-5303
                13 February 2017
                March 2016
                : 6
                : 1
                : 64-73
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ]Psychiatry and Addictology Department, Paul Brousse University Hospital of Villejuif, Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP) , Paris, France
                [ 2 ]Pole of Psychiatry 75G04, Henry Ey Hospital, Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne , Paris, France
                [ 3 ]Clinical Investigation Unit BALANCED “BehaviorAL AddictioNs and ComplEx mood Disorders”, Department of Addictology and Psychiatry, University Hospital of Nantes , Nantes, France
                [ 4 ]EA 4275 SPHERE “bioStatistics, Pharmacoepidemiology and Human sciEnces Research tEam”, Faculties of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nantes , Nantes, France
                [ 5 ]EA 4430 CLIPSYD “CLInique PSYchanalyse Développement”, University of Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense , Paris, France
                [ 6 ] Louis Mourier Hospital of Colombes, Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP) , Paris, France
                [ 7 ]Marmottan Medical Center, GPS Perray-Vaucluse , Paris, France
                [ 8 ]Department of Adult Psychiatry, Sainte-Marguerite University Hospital of Marseille , Marseille, France
                [ 9 ]Psychiatry Laboratory, Sanpsy CNRS USR 3413, University of Bordeaux and Charles Perrens Hospital , Bordeaux, France
                [ 10 ]Psychiatry Department, University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand , Clermont-Ferrand, France
                [ 11 ]Unit of Methodology and Biostatistics, University Hospital of Nantes , Nantes, France
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Dr. Mohamed Ali Gorsane, MD; 15, avenue de la Porte de Choisy, 75013 Paris, France; Present address: CESP, INSERM, Univ. Paris-Sud, UVSQ, Université Paris-Saclay, Villejuif 94800, France; Phone: +33 169254381; Fax: +33 169254383; E-mail: gorsane_m_a@ 123456yahoo.fr

                Members of the JEU Group: Marie Grall-Bronnec, Gaëlle Challet-Bouju, Jean-Luc Vénisse, Lucia Romo, Cindy Legauffre, Caroline Dubertret, Irène Codina, Marc Valleur, Marc Auriacombe, Mélina Fatséas, Jean-Marc Alexandre, Pierre-Michel Llorca, Isabelle Chéreau-Boudet, Christophe Lançon, David Magalon, Michel Reynaud, and Mohamed Ali Gorsane.

                Article
                10.1556/2006.6.2017.003
                5572995
                28198636
                © 2017 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 6, Equations: 0, References: 33, Pages: 10
                Funding
                Funding sources: This study was supported by both the joint support of the French Inter-departmental Mission for the fight against drugs and drug addiction (MILDT) and the French National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM), as part of the call for research projects launched by these two organizations in 2007, and a grant from the French Ministry of Health (PHRC 2009 – RCB 2008-A01188-47). There were no constraints on publishing. This research was conducted at the initiative of and coordinated by the gambling section of the Clinical Investigation Unit BALANCED “BehaviorAL AddictioNs and ComplEx mood Disorders” (the Reference Centre for Excessive Gambling) of the University Hospital of Nantes, who is the sponsor of this study.
                Categories
                FULL-LENGTH REPORT

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