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      Prevalence of Failure due to Adverse Reaction to Metal Debris in Modern, Medium and Large Diameter Metal-on-Metal Hip Replacements – The Effect of Novel Screening Methods: Systematic Review and Metaregression Analysis

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          Abstract

          Metal-on-metal (MoM) hip replacements were used for almost a decade before adverse reactions to metal debris (ARMD) were found to be a true clinical problem. Currently, there is a paucity of evidence regarding the usefulness of systematic screening for ARMD. We implemented a systematic review and meta-analysis to establish the prevalence of revision confirmed ARMD stratified by the use of different screening protocols in patients with MoM hip replacements. Five levels of screening were identified: no screening (level 0), targeted blood metal ion measurement and/or cross-sectional imaging (level 1), metal ion measurement without imaging (level 2), metal ion measurement with targeted imaging (level 3) and comprehensive screening (both metal ions and imaging for all; level 4). 122 studies meeting our eligibility criteria were included in analysis. These studies included 144 study arms: 100 study arms with hip resurfacings, 33 study arms with large-diameter MoM total hip replacements (THR), and 11 study arms with medium-diameter MoM THRs. For hip resurfacing, the lowest prevalence of ARMD was seen with level 0 screening (pooled prevalence 0.13%) and the highest with level 4 screening (pooled prevalace 9.49%). Pooled prevalence of ARMD with level 0 screening was 0.29% and with level 4 screening 21.3% in the large-diameter MoM THR group. In metaregression analysis of hip resurfacings, level 4 screening was superior with regard to prevalence of ARMD when compared with other levels. In the large diameter THR group level 4 screening was superior to screening 0,2 and 3. These outcomes were irrespective of follow-up time or study publication year. With hip resurfacings, routine cross-sectional imaging regardless of clinical findings is advisable. It is clear, however, that targeted metal ion measurement and/or imaging is not sufficient in the screening for ARMD in any implant concepts. However, economic aspects should be weighed when choosing the preferred screening level.

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          Most cited references 127

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          Early failure of metal-on-metal bearings in hip resurfacing and large-diameter total hip replacement: A consequence of excess wear.

          Early failure associated with adverse reactions to metal debris is an emerging problem after hip resurfacing but the exact mechanism is unclear. We analysed our entire series of 660 metal-on-metal resurfacings (Articular Surface Replacement (ASR) and Birmingham Hip Resurfacing (BHR)) and large-bearing ASR total hip replacements, to establish associations with metal debris-related failures. Clinical and radiological outcomes, metal ion levels, explant studies and lymphocyte transformation tests were performed. A total of 17 patients (3.4%) were identified (all ASR bearings) with adverse reactions to metal debris, for which revision was required. This group had significantly smaller components, significantly higher acetabular component anteversion, and significantly higher whole concentrations of blood and joint chromium and cobalt ions than asymptomatic patients did (all p < 0.001). Post-revision lymphocyte transformation tests on this group showed no reactivity to chromium or cobalt ions. Explants from these revisions had greater surface wear than retrievals for uncomplicated fractures. The absence of adverse reactions to metal debris in patients with well-positioned implants usually implies high component wear. Surgeons must consider implant design, expected component size and acetabular component positioning in order to reduce early failures when performing large-bearing metal-on-metal hip resurfacing and replacement.
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            Adverse reaction to metal debris following hip resurfacing: the influence of component type, orientation and volumetric wear.

            We sought to establish the incidence of joint failure secondary to adverse reaction to metal debris (ARMD) following metal-on-metal hip resurfacing in a large, three surgeon, multicentre study involving 4226 hips with a follow-up of 10 to 142 months. Three implants were studied: the Articular Surface Replacement; the Birmingham Hip Resurfacing; and the Conserve Plus. Retrieved implants underwent analysis using a co-ordinate measuring machine to determine volumetric wear. There were 58 failures associated with ARMD. The median chromium and cobalt concentrations in the failed group were significantly higher than in the control group (p < 0.001). Survival analysis showed a failure rate in the patients with Articular Surface Replacement of 12.8% [corrected] at five years, compared with < 1% at five years for the Conserve Plus and 1.5% at ten years for the Birmingham Hip Resurfacing. Two ARMD patients had relatively low wear of the retrieved components. Increased wear from the metal-on-metal bearing surface was associated with an increased rate of failure secondary to ARMD. However, the extent of tissue destruction at revision surgery did not appear to be dose-related to the volumetric wear.
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              Accelerating failure rate of the ASR total hip replacement.

              There is widespread concern regarding the incidence of adverse soft-tissue reactions after metal-on-metal (MoM) hip replacement. Recent National Joint Registry data have shown clear differences in the rates of failure of different designs of hip resurfacing. Our aim was to update the failure rates related to metal debris for the Articular Surface Replacement (ASR). A total of 505 of these were implanted. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a failure rate of 25% at six years for the ASR resurfacing and of 48.8% for the ASR total hip replacement (THR). Of 257 patients with a minimum follow-up of two years, 67 (26.1%) had a serum cobalt concentration which was greater than 7 μg/l. Co-ordinate measuring machine analysis of revised components showed that all patients suffering adverse tissue reactions in the resurfacing group had abnormal wear of the bearing surfaces. Six THR patients had relatively low rates of articular wear, but were found to have considerable damage at the trunion-taper interface. Our results suggest that wear at the modular junction is an important factor in the development of adverse tissue reactions after implantation of a large-diameter MoM THR.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                1 March 2016
                2016
                : 11
                : 3
                Affiliations
                Coxa Hospital for Joint Replacement, Biokatu 6b, 33900 Tampere, Finland
                Glasgow University, UNITED KINGDOM
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: None of the authors hold any stocks or shares in an organization that may in any way gain or lose financially from the publication of this manuscript. None of the authors hold or are currently applying for any patents relating to the content of the manuscript. AE has received a personal fee from DePuy (not related to this manuscript) and Stryker (not related to this manuscript). AR, PE and OL have no competing interests to declare. This does not alter the authors' adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: AR AE PE. Performed the experiments: AR. Analyzed the data: AR. Wrote the paper: AR AE OL PE.

                Article
                PONE-D-15-45235
                10.1371/journal.pone.0147872
                4773181
                26930057
                © 2016 Reito et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 4, Pages: 32
                Product
                Funding
                The authors received no specific funding for this work.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Anatomy
                Musculoskeletal System
                Pelvis
                Hip
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Anatomy
                Musculoskeletal System
                Pelvis
                Hip
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Diagnostic Medicine
                Diagnostic Radiology
                Magnetic Resonance Imaging
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Imaging Techniques
                Diagnostic Radiology
                Magnetic Resonance Imaging
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Radiology and Imaging
                Diagnostic Radiology
                Magnetic Resonance Imaging
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Surgical and Invasive Medical Procedures
                Musculoskeletal System Procedures
                Joint Replacement Surgery
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Anatomy
                Body Fluids
                Blood
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Anatomy
                Body Fluids
                Blood
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Physiology
                Body Fluids
                Blood
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Physiology
                Body Fluids
                Blood
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Hematology
                Blood
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Database and Informatics Methods
                Database Searching
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Imaging Techniques
                People and Places
                Demography
                Death Rates
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Population Biology
                Population Metrics
                Death Rates
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Research Assessment
                Systematic Reviews
                Custom metadata
                Data available by contacting the corresponding author.

                Uncategorized

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