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      A Histopathological Scheme for the Quantitative Scoring of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration and the Therapeutic Utility of Adult Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Intervertebral Disc Regeneration

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          The purpose of this study was to develop a quantitative histopathological scoring scheme to evaluate disc degeneration and regeneration using an ovine annular lesion model of experimental disc degeneration. Toluidine blue and Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) staining were used to evaluate cellular morphology: (i) disc structure/lesion morphology; (ii) proteoglycan depletion; (iii) cellular morphology; (iv) blood vessel in-growth; (v) cell influx into lesion; and (vi) cystic degeneration/chondroid metaplasia. Three study groups were examined: 5 × 5 mm lesion; 6 × 20 mm lesion; and 6 × 20 mm lesion plus mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) treatment. Lumbar intervertebral discs (IVDs) were scored under categories (i–vi) to provide a cumulative score, which underwent statistical analysis using STATA software. Focal proteoglycan depletion was associated with 5 × 5 mm annular rim lesions, bifurcations, annular delamellation, concentric and radial annular tears and an early influx of blood vessels and cells around remodeling lesions but the inner lesion did not heal. Similar features in 6 × 20 mm lesions occurred over a 3–6-month post operative period. MSCs induced a strong recovery in discal pathology with a reduction in cumulative histopathology degeneracy score from 15.2 to 2.7 ( p = 0.001) over a three-month recovery period but no recovery in carrier injected discs.

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          Years lived with disability (YLDs) for 1160 sequelae of 289 diseases and injuries 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.

          Non-fatal health outcomes from diseases and injuries are a crucial consideration in the promotion and monitoring of individual and population health. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) studies done in 1990 and 2000 have been the only studies to quantify non-fatal health outcomes across an exhaustive set of disorders at the global and regional level. Neither effort quantified uncertainty in prevalence or years lived with disability (YLDs). Of the 291 diseases and injuries in the GBD cause list, 289 cause disability. For 1160 sequelae of the 289 diseases and injuries, we undertook a systematic analysis of prevalence, incidence, remission, duration, and excess mortality. Sources included published studies, case notification, population-based cancer registries, other disease registries, antenatal clinic serosurveillance, hospital discharge data, ambulatory care data, household surveys, other surveys, and cohort studies. For most sequelae, we used a Bayesian meta-regression method, DisMod-MR, designed to address key limitations in descriptive epidemiological data, including missing data, inconsistency, and large methodological variation between data sources. For some disorders, we used natural history models, geospatial models, back-calculation models (models calculating incidence from population mortality rates and case fatality), or registration completeness models (models adjusting for incomplete registration with health-system access and other covariates). Disability weights for 220 unique health states were used to capture the severity of health loss. YLDs by cause at age, sex, country, and year levels were adjusted for comorbidity with simulation methods. We included uncertainty estimates at all stages of the analysis. Global prevalence for all ages combined in 2010 across the 1160 sequelae ranged from fewer than one case per 1 million people to 350,000 cases per 1 million people. Prevalence and severity of health loss were weakly correlated (correlation coefficient -0·37). In 2010, there were 777 million YLDs from all causes, up from 583 million in 1990. The main contributors to global YLDs were mental and behavioural disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, and diabetes or endocrine diseases. The leading specific causes of YLDs were much the same in 2010 as they were in 1990: low back pain, major depressive disorder, iron-deficiency anaemia, neck pain, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, anxiety disorders, migraine, diabetes, and falls. Age-specific prevalence of YLDs increased with age in all regions and has decreased slightly from 1990 to 2010. Regional patterns of the leading causes of YLDs were more similar compared with years of life lost due to premature mortality. Neglected tropical diseases, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and anaemia were important causes of YLDs in sub-Saharan Africa. Rates of YLDs per 100,000 people have remained largely constant over time but rise steadily with age. Population growth and ageing have increased YLD numbers and crude rates over the past two decades. Prevalences of the most common causes of YLDs, such as mental and behavioural disorders and musculoskeletal disorders, have not decreased. Health systems will need to address the needs of the rising numbers of individuals with a range of disorders that largely cause disability but not mortality. Quantification of the burden of non-fatal health outcomes will be crucial to understand how well health systems are responding to these challenges. Effective and affordable strategies to deal with this rising burden are an urgent priority for health systems in most parts of the world. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Radiological assessment of osteo-arthrosis.

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              Magnetic resonance classification of lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration.

              A reliability study was conducted. To develop a classification system for lumbar disc degeneration based on routine magnetic resonance imaging, to investigate the applicability of a simple algorithm, and to assess the reliability of this classification system. A standardized nomenclature in the assessment of disc abnormalities is a prerequisite for a comparison of data from different investigations. The reliability of the assessment has a crucial influence on the validity of the data. Grading systems of disc degeneration based on state of the art magnetic resonance imaging and corresponding reproducibility studies currently are sparse. A grading system for lumbar disc degeneration was developed on the basis of the literature. An algorithm to assess the grading was developed and optimized by reviewing lumbar magnetic resonance examinations. The reliability of the algorithm in depicting intervertebral disc alterations was tested on the magnetic resonance images of 300 lumbar intervertebral discs in 60 patients (33 men and 27 women) with a mean age of 40 years (range, 10-83 years). All scans were analyzed independently by three observers. Intra- and interobserver reliabilities were assessed by calculating kappa statistics. There were 14 Grade I, 82 Grade II, 72 Grade III, 68 Grade IV, and 64 Grade V discs. The kappa coefficients for intra- and interobserver agreement were substantial to excellent: intraobserver (kappa range, 0.84-0.90) and interobserver (kappa range, 0.69-0.81). Complete agreement was obtained, on the average, in 83.8% of all the discs. A difference of one grade occurred in 15.9% and a difference of two or more grades in 1.3% of all the cases. Disc degeneration can be graded reliably on routine T2-weighted magnetic resonance images using the grading system and algorithm presented in this investigation.

                Author and article information

                Role: Academic Editor
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                12 May 2017
                May 2017
                : 18
                : 5
                [1 ]Raymond Purves Bone and Joint Research Laboratory, Kolling Institute, Northern Sydney Local Health District, St. Leonards, NSW 2065, Australia; Cindy.shu@ (C.C.S.); mobsmith@ (M.M.S.); Susan.smith@ (S.M.S.); christopher.little@ (C.B.L.)
                [2 ]Faculty of Veterinary Science, University Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Sydney, Camden, NSW 2050, Australia; andrew.dart@
                [3 ]Sydney Medical School, Northern, The University of Sydney, Royal North Shore Hospital, St. Leonards, NSW 2065, Australia
                [4 ]Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW 2052, Australia
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: james.melrose@ ; Tel.: +61-2-9926-4806; Fax: +61-2-9926-5266
                © 2017 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (


                Molecular biology

                histopathology scoring, af, disc degeneration, ivd, quantitative histology


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