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      Vascular niche for adult hippocampal neurogenesis

      , ,

      The Journal of Comparative Neurology

      Wiley

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          Abstract

          The thin lamina between the hippocampal hilus and granule cell layer, or subgranule zone (SGZ), is an area of active proliferation within the adult hippocampus known to generate new neurons throughout adult life. Although the neuronal fate of many dividing cells is well documented, little information is available about the phenotypes of cells in S-phase or how the dividing cells might interact with neighboring cells in the process of neurogenesis. Here, we make the unexpected observation that dividing cells are found in dense clusters associated with the vasculature and roughly 37% of all dividing cells are immunoreactive for endothelial markers. Most of the newborn endothelial cells disappear over several weeks, suggesting that neurogenesis is intimately associated with a process of active vascular recruitment and subsequent remodeling. The present data provide the first evidence that adult neurogenesis occurs within an angiogenic niche. This environment may provide a novel interface where mesenchyme-derived cells and circulating factors influence plasticity in the adult central nervous system. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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          More hippocampal neurons in adult mice living in an enriched environment.

          Neurogenesis occurs in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus throughout the life of a rodent, but the function of these new neurons and the mechanisms that regulate their birth are unknown. Here we show that significantly more new neurons exist in the dentate gyrus of mice exposed to an enriched environment compared with littermates housed in standard cages. We also show, using unbiased stereology, that the enriched mice have a larger hippocampal granule cell layer and 15 per cent more granule cell neurons in the dentate gyrus.
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            CNS stem cells express a new class of intermediate filament protein.

            Multipotential CNS stem cells receive and implement instructions governing differentiation to diverse neuronal and glial fates. Exploration of the mechanisms generating the many cell types of the brain depends crucially on markers identifying the stem cell state. We describe a gene whose expression distinguishes the stem cells from the more differentiated cells in the neural tube. This gene was named nestin because it is specifically expressed in neuroepithelial stem cells. The predicted amino acid sequence of the nestin gene product shows that nestin defines a distinct sixth class of intermediate filament protein. These observations extend a model in which transitions in intermediate filament gene expression reflect major steps in the pathway of neural differentiation.
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              Learning enhances adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal formation.

              Thousands of hippocampal neurons are born in adulthood, suggesting that new cells could be important for hippocampal function. To determine whether hippocampus-dependent learning affects adult-generated neurons, we examined the fate of new cells labeled with the thymidine analog bromodeoxyuridine following specific behavioral tasks. Here we report that the number of adult-generated neurons doubles in the rat dentate gyrus in response to training on associative learning tasks that require the hippocampus. In contrast, training on associative learning tasks that do not require the hippocampus did not alter the number of new cells. These findings indicate that adult-generated hippocampal neurons are specifically affected by, and potentially involved in, associative memory formation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                The Journal of Comparative Neurology
                J. Comp. Neurol.
                Wiley
                0021-9967
                1096-9861
                October 02 2000
                October 02 2000
                2000
                : 425
                : 4
                : 479-494
                Article
                10.1002/1096-9861(20001002)425:4<479::AID-CNE2>3.0.CO;2-3
                10975875
                © 2000

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