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      Can the Green Laser Doppler Measure Skin-Nutritive Perfusion in Patients with Peripheral Vascular Disease?

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          Abstract

          The recently developed green laser (GL; wavelength 543 nm) is thought to measure perfusion derived from a more superficial skin layer than does the standard near-infrared laser (RL; wavelength 780 nm). These lasers were used to investigate the disturbances in the different layers of skin perfusion in ischaemic legs before and after treatment and compared with capillary microscopy. Eighteen patients (20 legs) with different stages of leg ischaemia scheduled for a vascular intervention (11 males, 7 females; median age 73, range: 52–81 years; Fontaine stages II–IV) were investigated by means of capillary microscopy, visualising the nail fold capillary perfusion, and a laser Doppler, equipped with a special dual probe conducting both GL and RL. The probe was attached to the pulp and the dorsum of the big toe to assess skin perfusion at rest and during reactive hyperaemia, while sitting and while supine. Resting and hyperaemic perfusion using GL was low and significantly lower (p < 0.01) than with RL in both areas and positions. Laser Doppler perfusion was higher in the pulp than on the dorsum with both wavelengths (p < 0.05). The hyperaemia response was highest using GL and differed among the three techniques. Postural reduction of capillary and RL flow was reduced, but not with GL. After treatment, skin capillary perfusion improved more clearly than did the laser Doppler perfusion with either wavelength, while postural vasoconstriction improved only when measured with the capillary microscope. The differences found between RL and GL Doppler perfusion, but also between GL and capillary microscopy measurements suggest that the GL does measure the more superficial, but not exclusively the nutritive skin perfusion. Clinically, the use of the green laser in its present form in patients with leg ischaemia offers no advantage over the red laser.

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          Most cited references 3

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          Laminar analysis of cerebral blood flow in cortex of rats by laser-Doppler flowmetry: a pilot study.

          Laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is a reliable method for estimation of relative changes of CBF. The measurement depth depends on wavelength of the laser light and the separation distance of transmitting and recording optical fibers. We designed an LDF probe using two wavelengths of laser light (543 nm and 780 nm), and three separation distances of optical fibers to measure CBF in four layers of the cerebral cortex at the same time. In vitro comparison with electromagnetic flow measurements showed linear relationship between LDF and blood flow velocity at four depths within the range relevant to physiologic measurements. Using artificial brain tissue slices we showed that the signal for each channel decreased in a theoretically predictable fashion as a function of slice thickness. Application of adenosine at various depths in neocortex of halothane-anesthetized rats showed a predominant CBF increase at the level of application. Electrical stimulation at the surface of the cerebellar cortex demonstrated superficial predominance of increased CBF as predicted from the distribution of neuronal activity. In the cerebellum, hypercapnia increased CBF in a heterogeneous fashion, the major increase being at apparent depths of approximately 300 and 600 microns, whereas in the cerebral cortex, hypercapnia induced a uniform increase. In contrast, the CBF response to cortical spreading depression in the cerebral cortex was markedly heterogeneous. Thus, real-time laminar analysis of CBF with spatial resolution of 200 to 300 microns may be achieved by LDF. The real-time in depth resolution may give insight into the functional organization of the cortical microcirculation and adaptive features of CBF regulation in response to physiologic and pathophysiologic stimuli.
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            Microcirculatory compensation to progressive atherosclerotic disease.

            The precapillary resistance in the skin of the foot increases with standing. This mechanism, termed the venoarterial reflex (VAR) restricts arterial inflow, and avoids an excessive rise in capillary pressure. This study tests the hypothesis that there is microcirculatory compensation to atherosclerotic disease of increasing severity. Foot skin perfusion (FSP) was measured in 100 limbs with a laser Doppler placed on the plantar aspect of the great toe. Limbs were categorized as normal (n = 31) with an ankle brackial index (ABI) > or = 0.96, claudicants (n = 42) ABI 0.5-0.86, and critical ischemia (n = 27) with an ABI < or = 0.49 or a pulse volume recording consistent with severe peripheral vascular disease and symptoms of rest pain or tissue loss. Segmental Doppler pressures and pulse volume recordings were performed prior to laser Doppler measurements. Subjects with clinical signs or symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency were excluded. The resting foot skin perfusion was measured in the horizontal and dependent position, with the patient supine and sitting. Comparisons within categories were done using Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank test and between groups with Mann-Whitney U test for unpaired data. Differences were considered significant if they exceeded the 95% confidence level (p value < or = 0.05). Resting supine skin perfusion was similar between nondiabetic normals and claudicants and diabetic normals and claudicants. There was a significant decrease in the foot skin perfusion (mean FSP +/- SEM) in the normal limb with a change from the supine (7.8 +/- 2.2 ml/min/100 g) to the dependent (2.8 +/- 0.6 ml/min/100 g) position indicating an intact VAR. This was absent in 33% of the limbs with claudication. Limbs with critical ischemia demonstrated an increase in FSP with dependency (supine 4.0 +/- 1.0 ml/min/100 g) versus dependent (8.4 +/- 1.8 ml/min/100 g) and was present in both diabetic and nondiabetic limbs. Microcirculatory compensation occurs early in atherosclerotic limbs. Although supine FSP is similar in normals and claudicants, a greater percentage of claudicants demonstrate a loss of the VAR. Critically ischemic limbs have increased FSP in the dependent position. These observations indicate that there are microcirculatory alterations in limbs with claudication and assist in explaining why patients with ischemic rest pain obtain relief and develop edema with dependency.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2000
                June 2000
                24 May 2000
                : 37
                : 3
                : 195-201
                Affiliations
                Department of Vascular Surgery, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
                Article
                25731 J Vasc Res 2000;37:195–201
                10.1159/000025731
                10859478
                © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 4, References: 22, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Research Paper

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