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      Early redox, Src family kinase, and calcium signaling integrate wound responses and tissue regeneration in zebrafish

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          Abstract

          Redox, SFK, and calcium signaling are immediate “wound signals” that integrate early wound responses and late epimorphic regeneration.

          Abstract

          Tissue injury can lead to scar formation or tissue regeneration. How regenerative animals sense initial tissue injury and transform wound signals into regenerative growth is an unresolved question. Previously, we found that the Src family kinase (SFK) Lyn functions as a redox sensor in leukocytes that detects H 2O 2 at wounds in zebrafish larvae. In this paper, using zebrafish larval tail fins as a model, we find that wounding rapidly activated SFK and calcium signaling in epithelia. The immediate SFK and calcium signaling in epithelia was important for late epimorphic regeneration of amputated fins. Wound-induced activation of SFKs in epithelia was dependent on injury-generated H 2O 2. A SFK member, Fynb, was responsible for fin regeneration. This work provides a new link between early wound responses and late regeneration and suggests that redox, SFK, and calcium signaling are immediate “wound signals” that integrate early wound responses and late epimorphic regeneration.

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          Most cited references 40

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          Wound healing--aiming for perfect skin regeneration.

           Tamara Martin (1997)
          The healing of an adult skin wound is a complex process requiring the collaborative efforts of many different tissues and cell lineages. The behavior of each of the contributing cell types during the phases of proliferation, migration, matrix synthesis, and contraction, as well as the growth factor and matrix signals present at a wound site, are now roughly understood. Details of how these signals control wound cell activities are beginning to emerge, and studies of healing in embryos have begun to show how the normal adult repair process might be readjusted to make it less like patching up and more like regeneration.
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            A tissue-scale gradient of hydrogen peroxide mediates rapid wound detection in zebrafish

            Barrier structures (e.g. epithelia around tissues, plasma membranes around cells) are required for internal homeostasis and protection from pathogens. Wound detection and healing represent a dormant morphogenetic program that can be rapidly executed to restore barrier integrity and tissue homeostasis. In animals, initial steps include recruitment of leukocytes to the site of injury across distances of hundreds of micrometers within minutes of wounding. The spatial signals that direct this immediate tissue response are unknown. Due to their fast diffusion and versatile biological activities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), are interesting candidates for wound-to-leukocyte signalling. We probed the role of H2O2 during the early events of wound responses in zebrafish larvae expressing a genetically encoded H2O2 sensor1. This reporter revealed a sustained rise in H2O2 concentration at the wound margin, starting ∼3 min after wounding and peaking at ∼20 min, which extended ∼100−200 μm into the tail fin epithelium as a decreasing concentration gradient. Using pharmacological and genetic inhibition, we show that this gradient is created by Dual oxidase (Duox), and that it is required for rapid recruitment of leukocytes to the wound. This is the first observation of a tissue-scale H2O2 pattern, and the first evidence that H2O2 signals to leukocytes in tissues, in addition to its known antiseptic role.
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              A renaissance for SRC.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Cell Biol
                J. Cell Biol
                jcb
                The Journal of Cell Biology
                The Rockefeller University Press
                0021-9525
                1540-8140
                15 October 2012
                : 199
                : 2
                : 225-234
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Program in Cellular and Molecular Biology , [2 ]Department of Pediatrics , [3 ]Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology , and [4 ]Cellular and Molecular Pathology Graduate Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706
                Author notes
                Correspondence to Anna Huttenlocher: huttenlocher@ 123456wisc.edu

                S.K. Yoo and C.M. Freisinger contributed equally to this paper.

                Article
                201203154
                10.1083/jcb.201203154
                3471241
                23045550
                © 2012 Yoo et al.

                This article is distributed under the terms of an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike–No Mirror Sites license for the first six months after the publication date (see http://www.rupress.org/terms). After six months it is available under a Creative Commons License (Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported license, as described at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/).

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