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      Two new catfish species of typically Amazonian lineages in the Upper Rio Paraguay (Aspredinidae: Hoplomyzontinae and Trichomycteridae: Vandelliinae), with a biogeographic discussion

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          Abstract

          Abstract Two new species of particular biogeographic significance are described from the upper rio Paraguay basin, one of the genus Paracanthopoma (Trichomycteridae, Vandelliinae) and the other of the genus Ernstichthys (Aspredinidae, Hoplomyzontinae). The two species occur sympatrically in the Rio Taquarizinho, tributary of the Rio Taquari, in the upper Paraguay system. Paracanthopoma saci is distinguished from its only congener, P. parva, by a spatulate caudal peduncle; a minuscule premaxillary dentition (reduced to three delicate teeth); the supraorbital latero-sensory canals opening as two separate s6 pores; the caudal fin slightly convex or truncate with round edges; the skull roof entirely open, unossified; the origins of dorsal and anal fins approximately at same vertical; and the pelvic fin with three rays. Ernstichthys taquari is diagnosed among congeners by the narrow bony shields on dorsal and ventral series, not overlapping or contacting each other; by the presence of seven or eight serrations on the posterior margin of the pectoral spine; and by the pectoral-fin spine only slightly larger than subsequent soft rays. Both Paracanthopoma and Ernstichthys were previously unknown outside of the Greater Amazonian river systems (Amazon, Orinoco, Essequibo and smaller surrounding drainages). Their presence restricted to the Rio Taquari is unexpected and suggests a peculiar biogeographical history. Ancestral geographic distributions were reconstructed using S-DIVA and BBM methods in RASP. A majority of resulting hypotheses support that the two species reached the Paraguay from the Amazon. The alternative explanation accounts for their presence in the Paraguay by vicariant events. In no case, their presence in the Paraguay is an ancestral distribution with subsequent Amazonian dispersal. Though unusual, this pattern is also seen in a few other fish taxa, showing that the Rio Taquari is biogeographically hybrid, combining elements from both the Paraguay and Amazon drainages.

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          Most cited references 63

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          RASP (Reconstruct Ancestral State in Phylogenies): a tool for historical biogeography.

          We announce the release of Reconstruct Ancestral State in Phylogenies (RASP), a user-friendly software package for inferring historical biogeography through reconstructing ancestral geographic distributions on phylogenetic trees. RASP utilizes the widely used Statistical-Dispersal Vicariance Analysis (S-DIVA), the Dispersal-Extinction-Cladogenesis (DEC) model (Lagrange), a Statistical DEC model (S-DEC) and BayArea. It provides a graphical user interface (GUI) to specify a phylogenetic tree or set of trees and geographic distribution constraints, draws pie charts on the nodes of a phylogenetic tree to indicate levels of uncertainty, and generates high-quality exportable graphical results. RASP can run on both Windows and Mac OS X platforms. All documentation and source code for RASP is freely available at http://mnh.scu.edu.cn/soft/blog/RASP.
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            The Neotropical cascudinhos: systematics and biogeography of the Otocinclus catfishes (Siluriformes: Loricariidae)

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              Dorsolateral head muscles of the catfish families Nematogenyidae and Trichomycteridae (Siluriformes: Loricarioidei): comparative anatomy and phylogenetic analysis

              The skeletal muscles of the dorsolateral region of the head of the Nematogenyidae and representatives of the all major clades of the Trichomycteridae are described and illustrated. A hypothesis on the phylogenetic relationships among these taxa exclusively based on the surveyed musculature is presented. The single most parsimonious cladogram obtained from the phylogenetic analysis of the 36 myological characters gathered and 35 terminal-taxa mostly agrees with the previous hypotheses of trichomycterid intrarelationships. The Copionodontinae and Trichogeninae form a monophyletic lineage that is the sister-group to all remaining trichomycterids. The monophyly of the clades formed by Glanapteryginae plus Sarcoglanidinae; Stegophilinae plus Tridentinae plus Vandelliinae; and the assemblage comprising all of these five subfamilies (TSVSG clade) is corroborated. Two of our findings are, however, discordant with the previous prevailing hypotheses: the sister-group relationship among Tridentinae and Stegophilinae and the monophyly of the Trichomycterinae lato sensu, i. e., including the genera Scleronema and Ituglanis. In addition, the previously proposed osteological synapomorphies supporting the close affinities of Scleronema and Ituglanis with the TSVSG clade were revised, revealing that they are either invalid or ambiguous. Most of the synapomorphies herein proposed are homoplasy-free, with some of them corroborating the monophyly of weakly-supported groups, such as Stegophilinae. Os músculos esqueléticos da região dorsolateral da cabeça de Nematogenyidae e de representantes de todos os maiores clados de Trichomycteridae são descritos e ilustrados. Uma hipótese das relações filogenéticas entre estes táxons, baseada exclusivamente na musculatura estudada, é apresentada. O único cladograma mais parcimonioso obtido da análise filogenética dos 36 caracteres miológicos levantados e 35 táxons-terminais concorda com a maior parte das hipóteses anteriores de relações entre os tricomicterídeos. Copionodontinae e Trichogeninae formam uma linhagem monofilética que é grupo-irmã de todos os demais tricomicterídeos. O monofiletismo dos clados formados por Glanapteryginae mais Sarcoglanidinae; Stegophilinae mais Tridentinae mais Vandelliinae; e do agrupamento incluindo estas cinco subfamílias (clado TSVSG) é corroborado. Duas de nossas descobertas são, entretanto, discordantes com relação às hipóteses anteriores mais aceitas: a relação de grupo-irmão entre Tridentinae e Stegophilinae e o monofiletismo de Trichomycterinae lato sensu, i. e., incluindo os gêneros Scleronema e Ituglanis. Além disso, as sinapomorfias osteológicas previamente propostas suportando as relações de afinidade de Scleronema e Ituglanis com o clado TSVSG foram revisadas, revelando serem inválidas ou ambíguas. A maior parte das sinapomorfias aqui propostas são livres de homoplasias, com algumas delas corroborando o monofiletismo de grupos fracamente suportados, tais como o da subfamília Stegophilinae.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                paz
                Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia
                Pap. Avulsos Zool.
                Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo (São Paulo, SP, Brazil )
                0031-1049
                1807-0205
                2021
                : 61
                Affiliations
                São Paulo São Paulo orgnameUniversidade de São Paulo orgdiv1Museu de Zoologia Brazil pinna@ 123456ib.usp.br
                Dourados Mato Grosso do Sul orgnameUniversidade Federal da Grande Dourados orgdiv1Faculdade de Ciências Biológicas e Ambientais Brazil ferdagosta@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                S0031-10492021000100247 S0031-1049(21)06100000247
                10.11606/1807-0205/2021.61.47

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 64, Pages: 0
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