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      Evidence for Cryptic Diversity in the “Pan-Antarctic” Springtail Friesea antarctica and the Description of Two New Species

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          Abstract

          The invertebrate terrestrial fauna of Antarctica is being investigated with increasing interest to discover how life interacts with the extreme polar environment and how millions of years of evolution have shaped their biodiversity. Classical taxonomic approaches, complemented by molecular tools, are improving our understanding of the systematic relationships of some species, changing the nomenclature of taxa and challenging the taxonomic status of others. The springtail Friesea grisea has previously been described as the only species with a “pan-Antarctic” distribution. However, recent genetic comparisons have pointed to another scenario. The latest morphological study has confined F. grisea to the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia, from which it was originally described, and resurrected F. antarctica as a congeneric species occurring on the continental mainland. Molecular data demonstrate that populations of this taxon, ostensibly occurring across Maritime and Continental Antarctica, as well as on some offshore islands, are evolutionarily isolated and divergent and cannot be included within a single species. The present study, combining morphological with molecular data, attempts to validate this hypothesis and challenges the taxonomic status of F. antarctica, suggesting that two additional new species, described here as Friesea gretae sp. nov. and Friesea propria sp. nov., are present in Continental Antarctica.

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          Most cited references 40

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          Revisiting the insect mitochondrial molecular clock: the mid-Aegean trench calibration.

          Phylogenetic trees in insects are frequently dated by applying a "standard" mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) clock estimated at 2.3% My(-1), but despite its wide use reliable calibration points have been lacking. Here, we used a well-established biogeographic barrier, the mid-Aegean trench separating the western and eastern Aegean archipelago, to estimate substitution rates in tenebrionid beetles. Cytochrome oxidase I (cox1) for six codistributed genera across 28 islands (444 individuals) on both sides of the mid-Aegean trench revealed 60 independently coalescing entities delimited with a mixed Yule-coalescent model. One representative per entity was used for phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial (cox1, 16S rRNA) and nuclear (Mp20, 28S rRNA) genes. Six nodes marked geographically congruent east-west splits whose separation was largely contemporaneous and likely to reflect the formation of the mid-Aegean trench at 9-12 Mya. Based on these "known" dates, a divergence rate of 3.54% My(-1) for the cox1 gene (2.69% when combined with the 16S rRNA gene) was obtained under the preferred partitioning scheme and substitution model selected using Bayes factors. An extensive survey suggests that discrepancies in mtDNA substitution rates in the entomological literature can be attributed to the use of different substitution models, the use of different mitochondrial gene regions, mixing of intraspecific with interspecific data, and not accounting for variance in coalescent times or postseparation gene flow. Different treatments of these factors in the literature confound estimates of mtDNA substitution rates in opposing directions and obscure lineage-specific differences in rates when comparing data from various sources.
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            Rapid morphological radiation and convergence among races of the butterfly Heliconius erato inferred from patterns of mitochondrial DNA evolution.

             A V Brower (1994)
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              The spatial structure of Antarctic biodiversity

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Insects
                Insects
                insects
                Insects
                MDPI
                2075-4450
                25 February 2020
                March 2020
                : 11
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Life Sciences, University of Siena, Via A. Moro 2, 53100 Siena, Italy; francesco.nardi@ 123456unisi.it (F.N.); leo6@ 123456student.unisi.it (C.L.); francesco.frati@ 123456unisi.it (F.F.); paolo.fanciulli@ 123456unisi.it (P.P.F.)
                [2 ]Environmental Management, School of Health and Life Sciences, Federation University, Ballarat, VIC 3350, Australia; p.greenslade@ 123456federation.edu.au
                [3 ]British Antarctic Survey, NERC, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK; pcon@ 123456bas.ac.uk
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: antonio.carapelli@ 123456unisi.it ; Tel.: +39-0577-234-410
                Article
                insects-11-00141
                10.3390/insects11030141
                7143604
                32106429
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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