Microglial activation and resultant neuroinflammatory response are implicated in various brain diseases including Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Treatment with anti-neuroinflammatory agents could provide therapeutic benefits for such disorders. Protosappanin A (PTA) is a major bioactive ingredient isolated from Caesalpinia sappan L.. In this work, the anti-neuroinflammatory effects of PTA on LPS-stimulated BV2 cells were investigated and the underlying mechanisms were explored. Results showed that PTA significantly inhibited the production of TNF- α and IL-1 β in LPS-activated BV2 microglia. Moreover, the mRNA expressions of IL-6, IL-1 β, and MCP-1 were reduced by PTA in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, PTA suppressed JAK2/STAT3-dependent inflammation pathway through down-regulating the phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3, as well as STAT3 nuclear translocation against LPS treatment. These observations suggested a novel role for PTA in regulating LPS-induced neuroinflammatory injuries.