The Jackson Heart Study will be an epidemiological study of African Americans in Jackson, Mississippi, to identify risk factors for development and progression of cardiovascular disease. One of the potential risk factors to be assessed in this study is renal vascular disease. Atherosclerotic renal vascular disease is a disease of the elderly, is predominantly seen in white people, and is strongly associated with diffuse atherosclerotic disease and high-grade hypertensive retinopathy. Patients with ischemic nephropathy may constitute up to 16% of new dialysis patients and die more quickly while on renal replacement therapy. Although often not present, hypertension is a commonly observed consequence (but probably not a cause) of renal vascular disease, and the control of blood pressure may not halt the progression of the disease. Approximately 20-25% of patients with moderate to severe renal artery stenosis will be diabetic. Diabetic patients fair less well with intervention and have a higher progression to end-stage renal disease or death. Obesity is not commonly seen in patients with renal vascular disease. The Jackson Heart Study may be able to assess the true incidence of atherosclerotic renal vascular disease in African Americans and its impact of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.