The present study describes the fishery and biology of Acoupa Weakfish Cynoscion acoupa, an important fishery resource in South America. We found and analyzed 31 articles and 10 publications about the species. Cynoscion acoupa is an estuarine marine species, which has a feeding habit with preference for fish and crustaceans. Its spawning occurs during two periods of the year and the size at maturity of females is 40 to 50 cm, while males mature earlier, with 38–40 cm. Their growth is considered slow to moderate, with growth coefficient k ranging from 0.13 to 0.28, and the species can reach up to 15 years of age. C. acoupa is target of commercial and recreational fisheries in estuarine and marine coastal environments, mainly in the northern region of South America. The fisheries occur throughout the year, with different fishing gear, being more frequent with gillnets. In addition, fishing is more frequent on juveniles, which may compromise the stock. This species is categorized as of Least Concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, although it has a high degree of vulnerability to fishing, which, combined with overexploitation, shows that C. acoupa should be listed as under threat of extinction to some degree. The lack of studies on the species makes it difficult to establish management measures. Therefore, further studies should be prioritized, especially on reproductive biology, growth and fishing exploitation.