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      From bacterial killing to immune modulation: Recent insights into the functions of lysozyme

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      PLoS Pathogens
      Public Library of Science

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          Abstract

          Lysozyme is a cornerstone of innate immunity. The canonical mechanism for bacterial killing by lysozyme occurs through the hydrolysis of cell wall peptidoglycan (PG). Conventional type (c-type) lysozymes are also highly cationic and can kill certain bacteria independently of PG hydrolytic activity. Reflecting the ongoing arms race between host and invading microorganisms, both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria have evolved mechanisms to thwart killing by lysozyme. In addition to its direct antimicrobial role, more recent evidence has shown that lysozyme modulates the host immune response to infection. The degradation and lysis of bacteria by lysozyme enhance the release of bacterial products, including PG, that activate pattern recognition receptors in host cells. Yet paradoxically, lysozyme is important for the resolution of inflammation at mucosal sites. This review will highlight recent advances in our understanding of the diverse mechanisms that bacteria use to protect themselves against lysozyme, the intriguing immunomodulatory function of lysozyme, and the relationship between these features in the context of infection.

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          Molecular basis of bacterial outer membrane permeability revisited.

          Gram-negative bacteria characteristically are surrounded by an additional membrane layer, the outer membrane. Although outer membrane components often play important roles in the interaction of symbiotic or pathogenic bacteria with their host organisms, the major role of this membrane must usually be to serve as a permeability barrier to prevent the entry of noxious compounds and at the same time to allow the influx of nutrient molecules. This review summarizes the development in the field since our previous review (H. Nikaido and M. Vaara, Microbiol. Rev. 49:1-32, 1985) was published. With the discovery of protein channels, structural knowledge enables us to understand in molecular detail how porins, specific channels, TonB-linked receptors, and other proteins function. We are now beginning to see how the export of large proteins occurs across the outer membrane. With our knowledge of the lipopolysaccharide-phospholipid asymmetric bilayer of the outer membrane, we are finally beginning to understand how this bilayer can retard the entry of lipophilic compounds, owing to our increasing knowledge about the chemistry of lipopolysaccharide from diverse organisms and the way in which lipopolysaccharide structure is modified by environmental conditions.
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            NOD1 and NOD2: signaling, host defense, and inflammatory disease.

            The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) proteins NOD1 and NOD2, the founding members of the intracellular NOD-like receptor family, sense conserved motifs in bacterial peptidoglycan and induce proinflammatory and antimicrobial responses. Here, we discuss recent developments about the mechanisms by which NOD1 and NOD2 are activated by bacterial ligands, the regulation of their signaling pathways, and their role in host defense and inflammatory disease. Several routes for the entry of peptidoglycan ligands to the host cytosol to trigger activation of NOD1 and NOD2 have been elucidated. Furthermore, genetic screens and biochemical analyses have revealed mechanisms that regulate NOD1 and NOD2 signaling. Finally, recent studies have suggested several mechanisms to account for the link between NOD2 variants and susceptibility to Crohn's disease. Further understanding of NOD1 and NOD2 should provide new insight into the pathogenesis of disease and the development of new strategies to treat inflammatory and infectious disorders.
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              Host recognition of bacterial muramyl dipeptide mediated through NOD2. Implications for Crohn's disease.

              NOD2, a protein associated with susceptibility to Crohn's disease, confers responsiveness to bacterial preparations of lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan, but the precise moiety recognized remains elusive. Biochemical and functional analyses identified muramyl dipeptide (MurNAc-L-Ala-D-isoGln) derived from peptidoglycan as the essential structure in bacteria recognized by NOD2. Replacement of L-Ala for D-Ala or D-isoGln for L-isoGln eliminated the ability of muramyl dipeptide to stimulate NOD2, indicating stereoselective recognition. Muramyl dipeptide was recognized by NOD2 but not by TLR2 or co-expression of TLR2 with TLR1 or TLR6. NOD2 mutants associated with susceptibility to Crohn's disease were deficient in their recognition of muramyl dipeptide. Notably, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from individuals homozygous for the major disease-associated L1007fsinsC NOD2 mutation responded to lipopolysaccharide but not to synthetic muramyl dipeptide. Thus, NOD2 mediates the host response to bacterial muropeptides derived from peptidoglycan, an activity that is important for protection against Crohn's disease. Because muramyl dipeptide is the essential structure of peptidoglycan required for adjuvant activity, these results also have implications for understanding adjuvant function and effective vaccine development.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS Pathog
                PLoS Pathog
                plos
                plospath
                PLoS Pathogens
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1553-7366
                1553-7374
                21 September 2017
                September 2017
                : 13
                : 9
                : e1006512
                Affiliations
                [001]Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Cancer Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, United States of America
                Stony Brook University, UNITED STATES
                Author notes

                The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3614-2652
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7738-3757
                Article
                PPATHOGENS-D-17-00011
                10.1371/journal.ppat.1006512
                5608400
                28934357
                9df52bba-b746-4e47-9caf-b15aa21b40dc
                © 2017 Ragland, Criss

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 0, Pages: 22
                Funding
                This work was supported by NIH R01 AI097312 (AKC) and the University of Virginia Robert R. Wagner Fellowship (SAR). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
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