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      Small Intestinal Pro-Inflammatory Immune Responses Following Campylobacter Jejuni Infection of Secondary Abiotic IL-10 –/– Mice Lacking Nucleotide-Oligomerization-Domain-2

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          Abstract

          Host immune responses are crucial for combating enteropathogenic infections including Campylobacter jejuni. Within 1 week following peroral C. jejuni infection, secondary abiotic IL-10 –/– mice develop severe immunopathological sequelae affecting the colon (ulcerative enterocolitis). In the present study, we addressed whether pathogen-induced pro-inflammatory immune responses could also be observed in the small intestines dependent on the innate receptor nucleotide-oligomerization-domain-protein 2 (Nod2). Within 7 days following peroral infection, C. jejuni stably colonized the gastrointestinal tract of both IL-10 –/– mice lacking Nod2 (Nod2 –/– IL-10 –/–) and IL-10 –/– controls displaying bloody diarrhea with similar frequencies. Numbers of apoptotic and regenerating epithelial cells increased in the small intestines of C. jejuni-infected mice of either genotype that were accompanied by elevated ileal T and B lymphocyte counts. Notably, ileal T cell numbers were higher in C. jejuni-infected Nod2 –/– IL-10 –/– as compared to IL-10 –/– counterparts. Furthermore, multifold increased concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IFN-γ, TNF, and MCP-1 could be measured in small intestinal ex vivo biopsies derived from C. jejuni-infected mice of either genotype. In conclusion, C. jejuni-induced pro-inflammatory immune responses affected the small intestines of both Nod2 –/– IL-10 –/– and IL-10 –/– mice, whereas ileal T lymphocyte numbers were even higher in the former.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Nod2 is a general sensor of peptidoglycan through muramyl dipeptide (MDP) detection.

          Nod2 activates the NF-kappaB pathway following intracellular stimulation by bacterial products. Recently, mutations in Nod2 have been shown to be associated with Crohn's disease, suggesting a role for bacteria-host interactions in the etiology of this disorder. We show here that Nod2 is a general sensor of peptidoglycan through the recognition of muramyl dipeptide (MDP), the minimal bioactive peptidoglycan motif common to all bacteria. Moreover, the 3020insC frameshift mutation, the most frequent Nod2 variant associated with Crohn's disease patients, fully abrogates Nod2-dependent detection of peptidoglycan and MDP. Together, these results impact on the understanding of Crohn's disease development. Additionally, the characterization of Nod2 as the first pathogen-recognition molecule that detects MDP will help to unravel the well known biological activities of this immunomodulatory compound.
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            Gram-negative bacteria aggravate murine small intestinal Th1-type immunopathology following oral infection with Toxoplasma gondii.

            Oral infection of susceptible mice with Toxoplasma gondii results in Th1-type immunopathology in the ileum. We investigated gut flora changes during ileitis and determined contributions of gut bacteria to intestinal inflammation. Analysis of the intestinal microflora revealed that ileitis was accompanied by increasing bacterial load, decreasing species diversity, and bacterial translocation. Gram-negative bacteria identified as Escherichia coli and Bacteroides/Prevotella spp. accumulated in inflamed ileum at high concentrations. Prophylactic or therapeutic administration of ciprofloxacin and/or metronidazole ameliorated ileal immunopathology and reduced intestinal NO and IFN-gamma levels. Most strikingly, gnotobiotic mice in which cultivable gut bacteria were removed by quintuple antibiotic treatment did not develop ileitis after Toxoplasma gondii infection. A reduction in total numbers of lymphocytes was observed in the lamina propria of specific pathogen-free (SPF), but not gnotobiotic, mice upon development of ileitis. Relative numbers of CD4(+) T cells did not differ in naive vs infected gnotobiotic or SPF mice, but infected SPF mice showed a significant increase in the frequencies of activated CD4(+) T cells compared with gnotobiotic mice. Furthermore, recolonization with total gut flora, E. coli, or Bacteroides/Prevotella spp., but not Lactobacillus johnsonii, induced immunopathology in gnotobiotic mice. Animals recolonized with E. coli and/or total gut flora, but not L. johnsonii, showed elevated ileal NO and/or IFN-gamma levels. In conclusion, Gram-negative bacteria, i.e., E. coli, aggravate pathogen-induced intestinal Th1-type immunopathology. Thus, pathogen-induced acute ileitis may prove useful to study bacteria-host interactions in small intestinal inflammation and to test novel therapies based on modulation of gut flora.
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              Novel Murine Infection Models Provide Deep Insights into the “Ménage à Trois” of Campylobacter jejuni, Microbiota and Host Innate Immunity

              Background Although Campylobacter jejuni-infections have a high prevalence worldwide and represent a significant socioeconomic burden, it is still not well understood how C. jejuni causes intestinal inflammation. Detailed investigation of C. jejuni-mediated intestinal immunopathology is hampered by the lack of appropriate vertebrate models. In particular, mice display colonization resistance against this pathogen. Methodology/Principal Findings To overcome these limitations we developed a novel C. jejuni-infection model using gnotobiotic mice in which the intestinal flora was eradicated by antibiotic treatment. These animals could then be permanently associated with a complete human (hfa) or murine (mfa) microbiota. After peroral infection C. jejuni colonized the gastrointestinal tract of gnotobiotic and hfa mice for six weeks, whereas mfa mice cleared the pathogen within two days. Strikingly, stable C. jejuni colonization was accompanied by a pro-inflammatory immune response indicated by increased numbers of T- and B-lymphocytes, regulatory T-cells, neutrophils and apoptotic cells, as well as increased concentrations of TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1 in the colon mucosa of hfa mice. Analysis of MyD88−/−, TRIF−/−, TLR4−/−, and TLR9−/− mice revealed that TLR4- and TLR9-signaling was essential for immunopathology following C. jejuni-infection. Interestingly, C. jejuni-mutant strains deficient in formic acid metabolism and perception induced less intestinal immunopathology compared to the parental strain infection. In summary, the murine gut flora is essential for colonization resistance against C. jejuni and can be overcome by reconstitution of gnotobiotic mice with human flora. Detection of C. jejuni-LPS and -CpG-DNA by host TLR4 and TLR9, respectively, plays a key role in immunopathology. Finally, the host immune response is tightly coupled to bacterial formic acid metabolism and invasion fitness. Conclusion/Significance We conclude that gnotobiotic and “humanized” mice represent excellent novel C. jejuni-infection and -inflammation models and provide deep insights into the immunological and molecular interplays between C. jejuni, microbiota and innate immunity in human campylobacteriosis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                EUJMI
                European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2062-509X
                2062-8633
                27 June 2017
                June 2017
                : 7
                : 2
                : 138-145
                Affiliations
                Department of Microbiology and Hygiene, Charité – University Medicine Berlin , Berlin, Germany
                Author notes
                Charité – University Medicine Berlin, CC5, Department of Microbiology and Hygiene, Campus Benjamin Franklin, FEM; Garystr. 5, D-14195 Berlin, Germany; +49-30-450524318; markus.heimesaat@ 123456charite.de

                Conflict of interest

                Stefan Bereswill and Markus M. Heimesaat are Editorial Board members.

                Article
                10.1556/1886.2017.00005
                5495086
                © 2017, The Author(s)

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 25, Pages: 8
                Funding
                Funding sources: This work was supported by grants from the German Research Foun dation (DFG) to A.F. and S.B. (SFB633, TP A7), M.M.H. (SFB633, TP B6), M.E.A. and U.G. (SFB633, Immuco), and from the German Federal Ministery of Education and Research (BMBF) to S.B. (TP1.1).
                The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, and decision to publish or preparation of the article.
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