The Spanish Barley Core Collection (SBCC) is a source of genetic variability of potential interest for breeding, particularly for adaptation to Mediterranean environments. Two backcross populations (BC 2F 5) were developed using the elite cultivar Cierzo as the recurrent parent. The donor parents, namely SBCC042 and SBCC073, were selected from the SBCC lines due to their outstanding yield in drought environments. Flowering time, yield and drought-related traits were evaluated in two field trials in Zaragoza (Spain) during the 2014–15 and 2015–16 seasons and validated in the 2017–18 season. Two hundred sixty-four lines of each population were genotyped with the Barley Illumina iSelect 50k SNP chip. Genetic maps for each population were generated. The map for SBCC042 × Cierzo contains 12,893 SNPs distributed in 9 linkage groups. The map for SBCC073 × Cierzo includes 12,026 SNPs in 7 linkage groups. Both populations shared two QTL hotspots. There are QTLs for flowering time, thousand-kernel weight (TKW), and hectoliter weight on a segment of 23 Mb at ~515 Mb on chromosome 1H, which encompasses the HvFT3 gene. In both populations, flowering was accelerated by the landrace allele, which also increased the TKW. In the same region, better soil coverage was contributed by SBCC042 but coincident with a lower hectoliter weight. The second large hotspot was on chromosome 6H and contained QTLs with wide intervals for grain yield, plant height and TKW. Landrace alleles contributed to increased plant height and TKW and reduced grain yield. Only SBCC042 contributed favorable alleles for “green area,” with three significant QTLs that increased ground coverage after winter, which might be exploited as an adaptive trait of this landrace. Some genes of interest found in or very close to the peaks of the QTLs are highlighted. Strategies to deploy the QTLs found for breeding and pre-breeding are proposed.