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      Gendered Help: Effects of Gender and Realm of Achievement on Autonomy- Versus Dependency-Oriented Help Giving


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          Building on research on helping relations and gender stereotypes, the present research explored the effects of gender-stereotypical perceptions on willingness to offer dependency- and autonomy-oriented help to women and men. Two studies were conducted in a 2 (Gender of the person in need) × 2 (Domain of achievement) between-participants design. Study 1 examined future success expectations of male versus female students needing help in performing either a stereotypically masculine or a stereotypically feminine academic task, and the kind of help participants preferred to offer them. Study 2 further explored perceptions of male versus female students who exhibited long-term failure in a gender-stereotypical versus non-stereotypical academic task, perceptions of their intellectual and social abilities, feelings toward them, attributions of their need, and the preferred way of helping. Our findings indicate that women failing in a stereotypically masculine domain may expect others to give them dependency- rather than autonomy-oriented help, and judge their traits and abilities in an unflattering manner. In other words, gender achievement stereotypes create a social context where helping interactions reproduce power and status discrepancies.

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          Most cited references52

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          An attributional theory of achievement motivation and emotion.

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            Stereotype Threat and Women's Math Performance

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              The gender similarities hypothesis.

              Janet Hyde (2005)
              The differences model, which argues that males and females are vastly different psychologically, dominates the popular media. Here, the author advances a very different view, the gender similarities hypothesis, which holds that males and females are similar on most, but not all, psychological variables. Results from a review of 46 meta-analyses support the gender similarities hypothesis. Gender differences can vary substantially in magnitude at different ages and depend on the context in which measurement occurs. Overinflated claims of gender differences carry substantial costs in areas such as the workplace and relationships. Copyright (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                J Soc Polit Psych
                Journal of Social and Political Psychology
                J. Soc. Polit. Psych.
                13 March 2017
                : 5
                : 1
                : 117-141
                [a ]School of Behavioral Sciences, Netanya Academic College, Netanya, Israel
                [b ]School of Behavioral Sciences, Tel-Aviv - Yaffo Academic College, Tel-Aviv, Israel
                [c ]The School of Psychological Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel
                [4]Philipps University Marburg, Marburg, Germany
                Author notes
                [* ]School of Behavioral Sciences, Netanya Academic College, Netanya 4223587, P. O. Box 120, Israel. lilycher@ 123456netanya.ac.il

                All content is freely available without charge to users or their institutions. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission of the publisher or the author. Articles are distributed under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                : 11 December 2015
                : 16 February 2017
                Self URI (journal-page): https://journals.psychopen.eu/
                Original Research Reports

                autonomy/dependency-oriented help,gender stereotypes,achievement domain,power relations


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