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      TMPRSS2-ERG fusion protein regulates insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor ( IGF1R) gene expression in prostate cancer: involvement of transcription factor Sp1

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          Abstract

          Prostate cancer is a major health issue in the Western world. The most common gene rearrangement in prostate cancer is the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion, which results in aberrant expression of the transcription factor ERG. The insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) plays a key role in cell growth and tumorigenesis, and is overexpressed in most malignancies, including prostate cancer. In this study we show that TMPRSS2-ERG mediates its tumorigenic effects through regulation of IGF1R gene expression. Silencing of T-ERG in VCaP cells resulted in downregulation of both IGF1R and Sp1, a critical IGF1R regulator. Co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed a physical interaction between transcription factors ERG and Sp1, with potential relevance in IGF1R gene regulation. In addition, transactivation of the IGF1R gene by ERG was mediated at the level of transcription, as indicated by results of promoter assays. To identify new co-activators of the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion protein we performed mass spectrometry-based proteomic analyses. Among other interactors, we identified AP-2 complex subunit mu (AP2M1) and caveolin-1 (CAV1) in association with ERG in cell nuclei. These proteins play a mechanistic role in IGF1R internalization. Our analyses are consistent with a potential novel function of TMPRSS2-ERG as a major regulator of IGF1R gene expression. Results may impinge upon ongoing efforts to target the IGF1R in the clinics.

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          Most cited references 43

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          Plasma insulin-like growth factor-I and prostate cancer risk: a prospective study.

          Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a mitogen for prostate epithelial cells. To investigate associations between plasma IGF levels and prostate cancer risk, a nested case-control study within the Physicians' Health Study was conducted on prospectively collected plasma from 152 cases and 152 controls. A strong positive association was observed between IGF-I levels and prostate cancer risk. Men in the highest quartile of IGF-I levels had a relative risk of 4.3 (95 percent confidence interval 1.8 to 10.6) compared with men in the lowest quartile. This association was independent of baseline prostate-specific antigen levels. Identification of plasma IGF-I as a predictor of prostate cancer risk may have implications for risk reduction and treatment.
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            The Ewing family of tumors--a subgroup of small-round-cell tumors defined by specific chimeric transcripts.

            Precise diagnosis of small-round-cell tumors is often a challenge to the pathologist and the clinical oncologist. In Ewing's sarcomas and related peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors, a t(11;22) translocation or a (21,22) rearrangement is associated with hybrid transcripts of the EWS gene with the FLI1 or ERG gene. To investigate the diagnostic implication of this observation, we searched for these hybrid transcripts in tumors from patients with clinical and radiologic features of Ewing's sarcoma or peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors. Samples of RNA from 114 tumors were reverse transcribed and subjected to the polymerase chain reaction with primers designed to amplify the relevant chimeric transcripts. All amplified products were sequenced. In-frame hybrid transcripts were observed in 89 cases. A hybrid transcript was found in 83 of 87 cases (95 percent) of Ewing's sarcoma or peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors. Samples of RNA from all of 12 tumors that had been proved to be other than Ewing's sarcoma or neuroectodermal tumors had no hybrid transcript. However, 6 of 15 undifferentiated tumors whose type was ambiguous (nonsecreting, poorly differentiated neuroblastoma or undifferentiated sarcoma) contained a hybrid transcript, suggesting that they might have to be reclassified. A subgroup of small-round-cell tumors identified as belonging to the Ewing family of tumors can be defined according to a specific molecular genetic lesion that is detectable by a rapid, reliable, and efficient method. This approach can be applied to small specimens obtained by fine-needle biopsies.
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              The effects of insulin-like growth factors on tumorigenesis and neoplastic growth.

              Several decades of basic and clinical research have demonstrated that there is an association between the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and neoplasia. We begin with a brief discussion of the function and regulation of expression of the IGFs, their receptors and the IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs). A number of investigational interventional strategies targeting the GH or IGFs are then reviewed. Finally, we have assembled the available scientific knowledge about this relationship for each of the major tumor types. The tumors have been grouped together by organ system and for each of the major tumors, various key elements of the relationship between IGFs and tumor growth are discussed. Specifically these include the presence or absence of autocrine IGF-I and IGF-II production; presence or absence of IGF-I and IGF-II receptor expression; the expression and functions of the IGFBPs; in vitro and in vivo experiments involving therapeutic interventions; and available results from clinical trials evaluating the effect of GH/IGF axis down-regulation in various malignancies.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Oncotarget
                Oncotarget
                Oncotarget
                ImpactJ
                Oncotarget
                Impact Journals LLC
                1949-2553
                9 August 2016
                6 June 2016
                : 7
                : 32
                : 51375-51392
                Affiliations
                1 Department of Human Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
                2 Yoran Institute for Human Genome Research, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Haim Werner, hwerner@ 123456post.tau.ac.il
                Article
                9837
                10.18632/oncotarget.9837
                5239482
                27285981
                Copyright: © 2016 Sharon et al.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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                Research Paper

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