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      Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia Score to predict severe retinopathy in Indian preterm infants

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      Eye
      Springer Nature

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          Abstract

          Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) screenings are expensive and entail heavy workload. Predictive models using postnatal weight gain reduces the number of ophthalmological examinations. The objective was to validate Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) score to predict severe ROP in resource limited settings. Prior to ophthalmic examination, the CHOP score was calculated to predict severe ROP (point estimate = 0.014) in 191 preterm infants. Cut-off point estimate, most suitable in resource limited settings was assessed. CHOP Score cutoff point (0.014) showed 67% sensitivity, 75% specificity. With CHOP score cut-off point (0.010), the corresponding values were 100% sensitivity, 51% specificity, PPV 12% and NPV 100%. CHOP Score (0.014) is a poor tool to predict the onset of severe ROP. However, CHOP Score (0.010) is a promising tool to predict the onset of severe ROP and reduces the need for ophthalmological examinations by 50% in resource limited settings.

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          Most cited references32

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          Revised indications for the treatment of retinopathy of prematurity: results of the early treatment for retinopathy of prematurity randomized trial.

          To determine whether earlier treatment using ablation of the avascular retina in high-risk prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) results in improved grating visual acuity and retinal structural outcomes compared with conventional treatment. Infants with bilateral high-risk prethreshold ROP (n = 317) had one eye randomized to early treatment with the fellow eye managed conventionally (control eye). In asymmetric cases (n = 84), the eye with high-risk prethreshold ROP was randomized to early treatment or conventional management. High risk was determined using a model based on the Multicenter Trial of Cryotherapy for Retinopathy of Prematurity natural history cohort. At a corrected age of 9 months, visual acuity was assessed by masked testers using the Teller acuity card procedure. At corrected ages of 6 and 9 months, eyes were examined for structural outcome. Outcomes for the 2 treatment groups of eyes were compared using chi2 analysis, combining data for bilateral and asymmetric cases. Grating acuity results showed a reduction in unfavorable visual acuity outcomes with earlier treatment, from 19.5% to 14.5% (P =.01). Unfavorable structural outcomes were reduced from 15.6% to 9.1% (P<.001) at 9 months. Further analysis supported retinal ablative therapy for eyes with type 1 ROP, defined as zone I, any stage ROP with plus disease (a degree of dilation and tortuosity of the posterior retinal blood vessels meeting or exceeding that of a standard photograph); zone I, stage 3 ROP without plus disease; or zone II, stage 2 or 3 ROP with plus disease. The analysis supported a wait-and-watch approach to type 2 ROP, defined as zone I, stage 1 or 2 ROP without plus disease or zone II, stage 3 ROP without plus disease. These eyes should be considered for treatment only if they progress to type 1 or threshold ROP. Early treatment of high-risk prethreshold ROP significantly reduced unfavorable outcomes to a clinically important degree. Additional analyses led to modified recommendations for the use of peripheral retinal ablation in eyes with ROP. Long-term follow-up is being conducted to learn whether the benefits noted in the first year after birth will persist into childhood.
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            Retinopathy of prematurity: a global perspective of the epidemics, population of babies at risk and implications for control.

            Globally at least 50,000 children are blind from retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) which is now a significant cause of blindness in many middle income countries in Latin American and Eastern Europe. Retinopathy of prematurity is also being reported from the emerging economies of India and China. The characteristics of babies developing severe disease varies, with babies in middle and low income countries having a much wider range of birth weights and gestational ages than is currently the case in industrialized countries. Rates of disease requiring treatment also tend to be higher in middle and low income countries suggesting that babies are being exposed to risk factors which are, to a large extent, being controlled in industrialised countries. The reasons for this "third epidemic" of ROP are discussed as well as strategies for control, including the need for locally relevant, evidence based criteria which ensure that all babies at risk are examined.
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              Suppression of retinal neovascularization in vivo by inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) using soluble VEGF-receptor chimeric proteins.

              The majority of severe visual loss in the United States results from complications associated with retinal neovascularization in patients with ischemic ocular diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusion, and retinopathy of prematurity. Intraocular expression of the angiogenic protein vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is closely correlated with neovascularization in these human disorders and with ischemia-induced retinal neovascularization in mice. In this study, we evaluated whether in vivo inhibition of VEGF action could suppress retinal neovascularization in a murine model of ischemic retinopathy. VEGF-neutralizing chimeric proteins were constructed by joining the extracellular domain of either human (Flt) or mouse (Flk) high-affinity VEGF receptors with IgG. Control chimeric proteins that did not bind VEGF were also used. VEGF-receptor chimeric proteins eliminated in vitro retinal endothelial cell growth stimulation by either VEGF (P < 0.006) or hypoxic conditioned medium (P < 0.005) without affecting growth under nonstimulated conditions. Control proteins had no effect. To assess in vivo response, animals with bilateral retinal ischemia received intravitreal injections of VEGF antagonist in one eye and control protein in the contralateral eye. Retinal neovascularization was quantitated histologically by a masked protocol. Retinal neovascularization in the eye injected with human Flt or murine Flk chimeric protein was reduced in 100% (25/25; P < 0.0001) and 95% (21/22; P < 0.0001) 0.0001) of animals, respectively, compared to the control treated eye. This response was evident after only a single intravitreal injection and was dose dependent with suppression of neovascularization noted after total delivery of 200 ng of protein (P < 0.002). Reduction of histologically evident neovascular nuclei per 6-microns section averaged 47% +/- 4% (P < 0.001) and 37% +/- 2% (P < 0.001) for Flt and Flk chimeric proteins with maximal inhibitory effects of 77% and 66%, respectively. No retinal toxicity was observed by light microscopy. These data demonstrate VEGF's causal role in retinal angiogenesis and prove the potential of VEGF inhibition as a specific therapy for ischemic retinal disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Eye
                Eye
                Springer Nature
                0950-222X
                1476-5454
                April 8 2019
                Article
                10.1038/s41433-019-0431-1
                7002559
                30962544
                9e0ceb71-3e90-4df6-8214-45fc48b2f782
                © 2019

                http://www.springer.com/tdm


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