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      Gigantism and Acromegaly Due to Xq26 Microduplications and GPR101 Mutation

      , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,   , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

      New England Journal of Medicine

      Massachusetts Medical Society

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          Abstract

          Increased secretion of growth hormone leads to gigantism in children and acromegaly in adults; the genetic causes of gigantism and acromegaly are poorly understood.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Anatomical profiling of G protein-coupled receptor expression.

          G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) comprise the largest family of transmembrane signaling molecules and regulate a host of physiological and disease processes. To better understand the functions of GPCRs in vivo, we quantified transcript levels of 353 nonodorant GPCRs in 41 adult mouse tissues. Cluster analysis placed many GPCRs into anticipated anatomical and functional groups and predicted previously unidentified roles for less-studied receptors. From one such prediction, we showed that the Gpr91 ligand succinate can regulate lipolysis in white adipose tissue, suggesting that signaling by this citric acid cycle intermediate may regulate energy homeostasis. We also showed that pairwise analysis of GPCR expression across tissues may help predict drug side effects. This resource will aid studies to understand GPCR function in vivo and may assist in the identification of therapeutic targets.
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            Derivation of rules for comparative protein modeling from a database of protein structure alignments.

            We describe a database of protein structure alignments as well as methods and tools that use this database to improve comparative protein modeling. The current version of the database contains 105 alignments of similar proteins or protein segments. The database comprises 416 entries, 78,495 residues, 1,233 equivalent entry pairs, and 230,396 pairs of equivalent alignment positions. At present, the main application of the database is to improve comparative modeling by satisfaction of spatial restraints implemented in the program MODELLER (Sali A, Blundell TL, 1993, J Mol Biol 234:779-815). To illustrate the usefulness of the database, the restraints on the conformation of a disulfide bridge provided by an equivalent disulfide bridge in a related structure are derived from the alignments; the prediction success of the disulfide dihedral angle classes is increased to approximately 80%, compared to approximately 55% for modeling that relies on the stereochemistry of disulfide bridges alone. The second example of the use of the database is the derivation of the probability density function for comparative modeling of the cis/trans isomerism of the proline residues; the prediction success is increased from 0% to 82.9% for cis-proline and from 93.3% to 96.2% for trans-proline. The database is available via electronic mail.
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              The role of germline AIP, MEN1, PRKAR1A, CDKN1B and CDKN2C mutations in causing pituitary adenomas in a large cohort of children, adolescents, and patients with genetic syndromes.

              The prevalence of germline mutations in MEN1, AIP, PRKAR1A, CDKN1B and CDKN2CI is unknown among pediatric patients with pituitary adenomas (PA). In this study, we screened children with PA for mutations in these genes; somatic GNAS mutations were also studied in a limited number of growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL)-secreting PA. We studied 74 and 6 patients with either isolated Cushing disease (CD) or GH- or PRL-secreting PA, respectively. We also screened four pediatric patients with CD, and four with GH/PRL-secreting tumors who had some syndromic features. There was one AIP mutation (p.Lys103Arg) among 74 CD patients. Two MEN1 mutations that occurred in patients with recurrent or difficult-to-treat disease were found among patients with CD. There was one MEN1 and three AIP mutations (p.Gln307ProfsX104, p.Pro114fsX, p.Lys241X) among pediatric patients with isolated GH- or PRL-secreting PA and one additional MEN1 mutation in a patient with positive family history. There were no mutations in the PRKAR1A, CDKN1B, CDKN2C or GNAS genes. Thus, germline AIP or MEN1 gene mutations are frequent among pediatric patients with GH- or PRL-secreting PA but are significantly rarer in pediatric CD; PRKAR1A mutations are not present in PA outside of Carney complex. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                New England Journal of Medicine
                N Engl J Med
                Massachusetts Medical Society
                0028-4793
                1533-4406
                December 18 2014
                December 18 2014
                : 371
                : 25
                : 2363-2374
                Article
                10.1056/NEJMoa1408028
                25470569
                © 2014
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