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      Acute lower respiratory infections on lung sequelae in Cambodia, a neglected disease in highly tuberculosis-endemic country


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          Little is known about post-infectious pulmonary sequelae in countries like Cambodia where tuberculosis is hyper-endemic and childhood pulmonary infections are highly frequent. We describe the characteristics of hospitalized Cambodian patients presenting with community-acquired acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) on post-infectious pulmonary sequelae (ALRIPS).


          Between 2007 and 2010, inpatients ≥15 years with ALRI were prospectively recruited. Clinical, biological, radiological and microbiological data were collected. Chest radiographs were re-interpreted by experts to compare patients with ALRIPS, on previously healthy lungs (ALRIHL) and active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Patients without chest radiograph abnormality or with abnormality suggestive as other chronic respiratory diseases were excluded from this analysis.


          Among the 2351 inpatients with community-acquired ALRI, 1800 were eligible: 426 (18%) ALRIPS, 878 (37%) ALRIHL and 496 (21%) TB. ALRIPS patients had less frequent fever than other ALRI ( p < 0.001) and more productive cough than ALRIHL ( p < 0.001). Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa accounted for 83% of ALRIPS group positive cultures. H. influenzae and P. aeruginosa were significantly associated with ALRIPS compared with ALRIHL. Treatment was appropriate in 58% of ALRIPS patients. Finally, 79% of ALRIPS were not recognized by local clinicians. In-hospital mortality was low (1%) but probably underestimated in the ALRIPS group.


          ALRIPS remains often misdiagnosed as TB with inappropriate treatment in low-income countries. Better-targeted training programs would help reduce the morbidity burden and financial costs.

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          Most cited references16

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          A study was undertaken to establish the chronic effect of initial and recurrent treated pulmonary tuberculosis on impairment of lung function. A total of 27 660 black South African gold miners who had reliable pulmonary function tests from January 1995 to August 1996 were retrospectively followed for the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis to 1970. The lung function measurements in 1995-6 were related to the number of previous episodes of tuberculosis and to the time that had lapsed from the diagnosis of the last episode of tuberculosis to the lung function test. Miners without tuberculosis or pneumoconiosis served as a comparison group. There were 2137 miners who had one episode of tuberculosis, 366 who had two, and 96 who had three or more episodes. The average time between the diagnosis of the last episode of tuberculosis and the lung function test was 4.6 years (range one month to 31 years). The loss of lung function was highest within six months of the diagnosis of tuberculosis and stabilised after 12 months when the loss was considered to be chronic. The estimated average chronic deficit in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) after one, two, and three or more episodes of tuberculosis was 153 ml, 326 ml, and 410 ml, respectively. The corresponding deficits for forced vital capacity (FVC) were 96 ml, 286 ml, and 345 ml. The loss of function due to tuberculosis was not biased by the presence of HIV as HIV positive and HIV negative subjects had similar losses. The percentage of subjects with chronic airflow impairment (FEV(1) <80% predicted) was 18.4% in those with one episode, 27.1% in those with two, and 35.2% in those with three or more episodes of tuberculosis. Tuberculosis can cause chronic impairment of lung function which increases incrementally with the number of episodes of tuberculosis. Clearly, prevention of tuberculosis and its effect on lung function is important and can be achieved by early detection and by reduction of the risk of tuberculosis through intervention on risk factors such as HIV, silica dust exposure, silicosis, and socioeconomic factors.
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            Tuberculosis is a global public health catastrophe responsible for >8 million cases of illness and 2 million deaths annually. Pulmonary cavitation with cough-generated aerosol is the principle means of spread, and lung remodeling (healed cavitation, fibrosis, and bronchiectasis) is a major cause of lung disability, surpassing all other diffuse parenchymal lung diseases combined. Efficient granuloma turnover is mycobactericidal, and extracellular matrix is disbanded without scarring. In many with progressive disease, however, there is dysregulated granuloma turnover, liquefactive necrosis, and pathological scarring. The pathological mechanisms and the related immunological pathways underpinning these phenomena are reviewed in the present article. Further studies are needed to identify and develop specific immunotherapeutic interventions that target immunopathology, since they have the potential to substantially reduce spread.
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              Bacterial colonisation in patients with bronchiectasis: microbiological pattern and risk factors.

              A study was undertaken to investigate the incidence, diagnostic yield of non-invasive and bronchoscopic techniques, and risk factors of airway colonisation in patients with bronchiectasis in a stable clinical situation. A 2 year prospective study of 77 patients with bronchiectasis in a stable clinical condition was performed in an 800 bed tertiary university hospital. The interventions used were pharyngeal swabs, sputum cultures and quantitative protected specimen brush (PSB) bacterial cultures (cut off point > or =10(2) cfu/ml) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) (cut off point > or =10(3) cfu/ml). The incidence of bronchial colonisation with potential pathogenic microorganisms (PPMs) was 64%. The most frequent PPMs isolated were Haemophilus influenzae (55%) and Pseudomonas spp (26%). Resistance to antibiotics was found in 30% of the isolated pathogens. When the sample was appropriate, the operative characteristics of the sputum cultures were similar to those obtained with the PSB taken as a gold standard. Risk factors associated with bronchial colonisation by PPMs in the multivariate analysis were: (1) diagnosis of bronchiectasis before the age of 14 years (odds ratio (OR)=3.92, 95% CI 1.29 to 11.95), (2) forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) <80% predicted (OR=3.91, 95% CI 1.30 to 11.78), and (3) presence of varicose or cystic bronchiectasis (OR=4.80, 95% CI 1.11 to 21.46). Clinically stable patients with bronchiectasis have a high prevalence of bronchial colonisation by PPMs. Sputum culture is a good alternative to bronchoscopic procedures for evaluation of this colonisation. Early diagnosis of bronchiectasis, presence of varicose-cystic bronchiectasis, and FEV1 <80% predicted appear to be risk factors for bronchial colonisation with PPMs.

                Author and article information

                Respir Med
                Respir Med
                Respiratory Medicine
                Elsevier Ltd.
                9 August 2013
                October 2013
                9 August 2013
                : 107
                : 10
                : 1625-1632
                [a ]Institut Pasteur du Cambodge, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
                [b ]Université Paris-Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, Service des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, APHP, Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire Imagine, Paris, France
                [c ]Donkeo Provincial Hospital, Takeo, Cambodia
                [d ]Kampong Cham Provincial Hospital, Kampong Cham, Cambodia
                [e ]Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Centre de Pneumologie et Réanimation Respiratoire, Hôpital Tenon, APHP, Paris, France
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. Institut Pasteur du Cambodge, Epidemiology and Public Health Unit, 5 Boulevard Monivong – BP 983, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Tel.: +855 23 426 009; fax: +855 23 428 561. brammaert@ 123456yahoo.fr
                Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                : 21 April 2013
                : 23 July 2013

                bronchiectasis,airway remodeling,pseudomonas aeruginosa,haemophilus influenzae,countries,developing


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