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      Hazard assessment of oil spills along the main shipping lane in the Red Sea

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          Abstract

          This study investigates the risk from oil spills along the main shipping lane in the Red Sea based upon oil spill model trajectories forced by the outputs of validated high resolution regional met-ocean data. Following the intra-annual variations in the met-ocean conditions, the results are presented by classifying the basin into three regions: northern, central and southern Red Sea. The maximum distance traveled by the slick is presented for 1, 2, 5, 10, 14 and 20 days after the commencement of a spill. Different measures of hazard assessment in terms of the concentration of beached oil alongside the corresponding probability maps are also analyzed. The volume fractions of beached, dispersed and evaporated oil, 20 days after the commencement of a spill are quantified. The Red Sea general circulation is characterized by rich mesoscale eddies, which appear to be the most prevailing dynamics in oil transport in the basin. Two case events are analyzed to closely examine the effects of the mesoscale circulations on the fate of spilled oil. The results of this study provide a comprehensive assessment of oil spill hazards in the Red Sea, stemming its main shipping lane and identifies the areas at high risk that require timely mitigation strategies.

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          Most cited references 49

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          Ultrastructural Characterization of the Lower Motor System in a Mouse Model of Krabbe Disease

          Krabbe disease (KD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the lack of β- galactosylceramidase enzymatic activity and by widespread accumulation of the cytotoxic galactosyl-sphingosine in neuronal, myelinating and endothelial cells. Despite the wide use of Twitcher mice as experimental model for KD, the ultrastructure of this model is partial and mainly addressing peripheral nerves. More details are requested to elucidate the basis of the motor defects, which are the first to appear during KD onset. Here we use transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to focus on the alterations produced by KD in the lower motor system at postnatal day 15 (P15), a nearly asymptomatic stage, and in the juvenile P30 mouse. We find mild effects on motorneuron soma, severe ones on sciatic nerves and very severe effects on nerve terminals and neuromuscular junctions at P30, with peripheral damage being already detectable at P15. Finally, we find that the gastrocnemius muscle undergoes atrophy and structural changes that are independent of denervation at P15. Our data further characterize the ultrastructural analysis of the KD mouse model, and support recent theories of a dying-back mechanism for neuronal degeneration, which is independent of demyelination.
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            Hydrostatic, quasi-hydrostatic, and nonhydrostatic ocean modeling

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              The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                ibrahim.hoteit@kaust.edu.sa
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                23 August 2021
                23 August 2021
                2021
                : 11
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.45672.32, ISNI 0000 0001 1926 5090, Computer, Electrical and Mathematical Sciences and Engineering Division, , King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, (KAUST), ; Thuwal, 23955-6900 Saudi Arabia
                [2 ]GRID grid.45672.32, ISNI 0000 0001 1926 5090, Physical Science and Engineering Division, , King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, (KAUST), ; Thuwal, 23955-6900 Saudi Arabia
                [3 ]GRID grid.55602.34, ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8200, Department of Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, , Dalhousie University, ; Halifax, NS B3H 4R2 Canada
                Article
                96572
                10.1038/s41598-021-96572-5
                8382762
                34426613
                9e18fd59-2c51-45ce-b8a4-4c70c74b6087
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100004052, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology;
                Award ID: REP/1/3268-01-01
                Award ID: REP/1/3268-01-01
                Award ID: REP/1/3268-01-01
                Award ID: REP/1/3268-01-01
                Award ID: REP/1/3268-01-01
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                © The Author(s) 2021

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                natural hazards, ocean sciences

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