Blog
About

2
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      Metabolic syndrome in Spanish adolescents and its association with birth weight, breastfeeding duration, maternal smoking, and maternal obesity: a cross-sectional study

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisher
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 28

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Metabolic syndrome in childhood: association with birth weight, maternal obesity, and gestational diabetes mellitus.

          Childhood obesity has contributed to an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome (MS) among children. Intrauterine exposure to diabetes and size at birth are risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus, but their association with MS in childhood has not been demonstrated. We examined the development of MS among large-for-gestational-age (LGA) and appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) children. The major components of MS (obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and glucose intolerance) were evaluated in a longitudinal cohort study of children at age 6, 7, 9, and 11 years who were LGA (n = 84) or AGA (n = 95) offspring of mothers with or without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The cohort consisted of 4 groups, ie, LGA offspring of control mothers, LGA offspring of mothers with GDM, AGA offspring of control mothers, and AGA offspring of mothers with GDM. Biometric and anthropometric measurements were obtained at 6, 7, 9, and 11 years. Biochemical testing included measurements of postprandial glucose and insulin levels and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels at 6 and 7 years and of fasting glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and HDL cholesterol levels at 9 and 11 years. We defined the components of MS as (1) obesity (BMI >85th percentile for age), (2) diastolic or systolic blood pressure >95th percentile for age, (3) postprandial glucose level >140 mg/dL or fasting glucose level >110 mg/dL, (4) triglyceride level >95th percentile for age, and (5) HDL level 85th percentile) at 11 years was present in 25% to 35% of the children, but rates were not different between LGA and AGA offspring. There was a trend toward a higher incidence of insulin resistance, defined as a fasting glucose/insulin ratio of or =2 components of MS was 50% for the LGA/GDM group, which was significantly higher than values for the LGA/control group (29%), AGA/GDM group (21%), and AGA/control group (18%). The prevalence of > or =3 components of MS at age 11 was 15% for the LGA/GDM group, compared with 3.0% to 5.3% for the other groups. Cox regression analysis was performed to determine the independent hazard (risk) of developing MS attributable to birth weight, gender, maternal prepregnancy obesity, and GDM. For Cox analyses, we defined MS as > or =2 of the following 4 components: obesity, hypertension (systolic or diastolic), glucose intolerance, and dyslipidemia (elevated triglyceride levels or low HDL levels). LGA status and maternal obesity increased the risk of MS approximately twofold, with hazard ratios of 2.19 (95% CI: 1.25-3.82) and 1.81 (95% CI: 1.03-3.19), respectively. GDM and gender were not independently significant. To determine the cumulative hazard of developing MS with time, we plotted the risk according to LGA or AGA category for the control and GDM groups from 6 years to 11 years, with Cox regression analyses. The risk of developing MS with time was not significantly different between LGA and AGA offspring in the control group but was significantly different between LGA and AGA offspring in the GDM group, with a 3.6-fold greater risk among LGA children by 11 years. We showed that LGA offspring of diabetic mothers were at significant risk of developing MS in childhood. The prevalence of MS in the other groups was similar to the prevalence (4.8%) among white adolescents in the 1988-1994 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. This effect of LGA with maternal GDM on childhood MS was previously demonstrated for Pima Indian children but not the general population. We also found that children exposed to maternal obesity were at increased risk of developing MS, which suggests that obese mothers who do not fulfill the clinical criteria for GDM may still have metabolic factors that affect fetal growth and postnatal outcomes. Children who are LGA at birth and exposed to an intrauterine environment of either diabetes or maternal obesity are at increased risk of developing MS. Given the increased obesity prevalence, these findings have implications for perpetuating the cycle of obesity, insulin resistance, and their consequences in subsequent generations.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: not found
            • Article: not found

            The metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents - an IDF consensus report.

              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              The metabolic syndrome: useful concept or clinical tool? Report of a WHO Expert Consultation.

              This article presents the conclusions of a WHO Expert Consultation that evaluated the utility of the 'metabolic syndrome' concept in relation to four key areas: pathophysiology, epidemiology, clinical work and public health. The metabolic syndrome is a concept that focuses attention on complex multifactorial health problems. While it may be considered useful as an educational concept, it has limited practical utility as a diagnostic or management tool. Further efforts to redefine it are inappropriate in the light of current knowledge and understanding, and there is limited utility in epidemiological studies in which different definitions of the metabolic syndrome are compared. Metabolic syndrome is a pre-morbid condition rather than a clinical diagnosis, and should thus exclude individuals with established diabetes or known cardiovascular disease (CVD). Future research should focus on: (1) further elucidation of common metabolic pathways underlying the development of diabetes and CVD, including those clustering within the metabolic syndrome; (2) early-life determinants of metabolic risk; (3) developing and evaluating context-specific strategies for identifying and reducing CVD and diabetes risk, based on available resources; and (4) developing and evaluating population-based prevention strategies.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                European Journal of Nutrition
                Eur J Nutr
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1436-6207
                1436-6215
                June 2015
                July 23 2014
                June 2015
                : 54
                : 4
                : 589-597
                10.1007/s00394-014-0740-x
                © 2015

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

                Comments

                Comment on this article