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      CTGF siRNA ameliorates tubular cell apoptosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in obstructed mouse kidneys in a Sirt1-independent manner

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          Abstract

          Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of chronic kidney disease. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a critical fibrogenic mediator of TGF-β1. Mammalian sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) is reported to attenuate renal fibrosis by inhibiting the TGF-β1 pathway. This study was designed to detect whether the delivery of CTGF siRNA in vivo directly ameliorates renal fibrosis. Furthermore, the relationship with Sirt1 underlying the protective effect of CTGF siRNA on interstitial fibrosis and apoptosis was explored. Here, we report that the expressions of CTGF and TGF-β1 were increased while Sirt1 expression and activity were both dramatically decreased in mouse kidneys with unilateral ureteral obstruction. Recombinant human TGF-β1 treatment in HK-2 cells increased CTGF levels and remarkably decreased Sirt1 levels and was accompanied by apoptosis and release of fibrosis-related factors. Recombinant human CTGF stimulation also directly induced apoptosis and fibrosis. The CTGF siRNA plasmid ameliorated tubular cell apoptosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, but did not affect Sirt1 expression and activity both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, overexpression of Sirt1 abolished TGF-β1-induced cell apoptosis and fibrosis, while Sirt1 overexpression suppressed CTGF expression via stimulation by TGF-β1. This study provides evidence that treatment strategies involving the delivery of siRNA targeting potentially therapeutic transgenes may be efficacious. Our results suggest that the decrease in Sirt1 is associated with the upregulated expression of CTGF in renal fibrosis, and may aid in the design of new therapies for the prevention of renal fibrosis.

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          Most cited references 43

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          Transforming growth factor beta in tissue fibrosis.

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            Sirtuins in mammals: insights into their biological function.

            Sirtuins are a conserved family of proteins found in all domains of life. The first known sirtuin, Sir2 (silent information regulator 2) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, from which the family derives its name, regulates ribosomal DNA recombination, gene silencing, DNA repair, chromosomal stability and longevity. Sir2 homologues also modulate lifespan in worms and flies, and may underlie the beneficial effects of caloric restriction, the only regimen that slows aging and extends lifespan of most classes of organism, including mammals. Sirtuins have gained considerable attention for their impact on mammalian physiology, since they may provide novel targets for treating diseases associated with aging and perhaps extend human lifespan. In this review we describe our current understanding of the biological function of the seven mammalian sirtuins, SIRT1-7, and we will also discuss their potential as mediators of caloric restriction and as pharmacological targets to delay and treat human age-related diseases.
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              Chronic hypoxia and tubulointerstitial injury: a final common pathway to end-stage renal failure.

              Recent studies emphasize the role of chronic hypoxia in the tubulointerstitium as a final common pathway to end-stage renal failure. When advanced, tubulointerstitial damage is associated with the loss of peritubular capillaries. Associated interstitial fibrosis impairs oxygen diffusion and supply to tubular and interstitial cells. Hypoxia of tubular cells leads to apoptosis or epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation. This in turn exacerbates fibrosis of the kidney and subsequent chronic hypoxia, setting in train a vicious cycle whose end point is ESRD. A number of mechanisms that induce tubulointerstitial hypoxia at an early stage have been identified. Glomerular injury and vasoconstriction of efferent arterioles as a result of imbalances in vasoactive substances decrease postglomerular peritubular capillary blood flow. Angiotensin II not only constricts efferent arterioles but, via its induction of oxidative stress, also hampers the efficient utilization of oxygen in tubular cells. Relative hypoxia in the kidney also results from increased metabolic demand in tubular cells. Furthermore, renal anemia hinders oxygen delivery. These factors can affect the kidney before the appearance of significant pathologic changes in the vasculature and predispose the kidney to tubulointerstitial injury. Therapeutic approaches that target the chronic hypoxia should prove effective against a broad range of renal diseases. Current modalities include the improvement of anemia with erythropoietin, the preservation of peritubular capillary blood flow by blockade of the renin-angiotensin system, and the use of antioxidants. Recent studies have elucidated the mechanism of hypoxia-induced transcription, namely that prolyl hydroxylase regulates hypoxia-inducible factor. This has given hope for the development of novel therapeutic approaches against this final common pathway.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2015
                31 July 2015
                : 9
                : 4155-4171
                Affiliations
                Department of Pathology, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yonghong Shi; Huijun Duan, Department of Pathology, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050017, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 311 8626 1039; +86 311 8626 6942, Fax +86 311 8604 3026, Email yonghongshi@ 123456163.com ; duanhj999@ 123456163.com
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                dddt-9-4155
                10.2147/DDDT.S86748
                4527372
                © 2015 Ren et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                apoptosis, ureteral obstruction, fibrosis, ctgf, sirt1

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