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      Milk-Derived Nanoparticle Fraction Promotes the Formation of Small Osteoclasts But Reduces Bone Resorption : MILK NANOPARTICLES MODULATE OSTOCLASTOGENESIS

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          Most cited references 27

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          NFATc1 induces osteoclast fusion via up-regulation of Atp6v0d2 and the dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP).

          NFATc1 has been characterized as a master regulator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand-induced osteoclast differentiation. Herein, we demonstrate a novel role for NFATc1 as a positive regulator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand-mediated osteoclast fusion as well as other fusion-inducing factors such as TNF-alpha. Exogenous overexpression of a constitutively active form of NFATc1 in bone marrow-derived monocyte/macrophage cells (BMMs) induces formation of multinucleated osteoclasts as well as the expression of fusion-mediating molecules such as the d2 isoform of vacuolar ATPase V(o) domain (Atp6v0d2) and the dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP). Moreover, inactivation of NFATc1 by cyclosporin A treatment attenuates expression of Atp6v0d2 and DC-STAMP and subsequent fusion process of osteoclasts. We show that NFATc1 binds to the promoter regions of Atp6v0d2 and DC-STAMP in osteoclasts and directly induces their expression. Furthermore, overexpression of Atp6v0d2 and DC-STAMP rescues cell-cell fusion of preosteoclasts despite reduced NFATc1 activity. Our data indicate for the first time that the NFATc1/Atp6v0d2 and DC-STAMP signaling axis plays a key role in the osteoclast multinucleation process, which is essential for efficient bone resorption.
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            Identification and characterization of microRNAs in raw milk during different periods of lactation, commercial fluid, and powdered milk products.

            Recent baby formula milk powder contamination incidents have shown that the classic markers or standards in milk quality control are insufficient in identifying "manipulated" poor-quality milk. In the present study, we demonstrated for the first time that cow milk contains large amounts of microRNAs (miRNAs) and that the unique expression profile of milk-specific miRNAs can serve as a novel indicator and possible new standard for the quality control of raw milk and milk-related commercial products, such as fluid milk and powdered formula milk. First, using Solexa sequencing, we systematically screened miRNA expression in raw milk and identified a total of 245 miRNAs in raw milk. Unlike other classic biomarkers whose expression levels are nearly identical at different periods of lactation, individual miRNAs can be significantly altered during lactation process, implicating that miRNAs may be a more accurate indicator to reflect the quality alteration of milk. Second, using TaqMan probe-based miRNA quantitative RT-PCR, we further identified seven miRNAs that have a relatively consistent expression throughout the lactation process, and more importantly, the expression profile of these seven milk-specific miRNAs can serve as an ideal biomarker for discriminating poor-quality or "manipulated" milk from pure raw milk, as well as for the quality control of commercial milk products, such as fluid milk and powdered formula milk. Together, our findings provide a basis for understanding the physiological role of milk miRNAs and a new potential standard for determining the quality of raw milk or milk-related commercial products.
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              Essential role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in cathepsin K gene expression during osteoclastogenesis through association of NFATc1 and PU.1.

              The receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) induces various osteoclast-specific marker genes during osteoclast differentiation mediated by mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades. However, the results of transcriptional programming of an osteoclast-specific cathepsin K gene are inconclusive. Here we report the regulatory mechanisms of RANKL-induced cathepsin K gene expression during osteoclastogenesis in a p38 MAP kinase-dependent manner. The reporter gene analysis with sequential 5'-deletion constructs of the cathepsin K gene promoter indicates that limited sets of the transcription factors such as NFATc1, PU.1, and microphthalmia transcription factor indeed enhance synergistically the gene expression when overexpressed in RAW264 cells. In addition, the activation of p38 MAP kinase is required for the maximum enhancement of the gene expression. RANKL-induced NFATc1 forms a complex with PU.1 in nuclei of osteoclasts following the nuclear accumulation of NFATc1 phosphorylated by the activated p38 MAP kinase. These results suggest that the RANKL-induced cathepsin K gene expression is cooperatively regulated by the combination of the transcription factors and p38 MAP kinase in a gradual manner.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Cellular Physiology
                J. Cell. Physiol
                Wiley
                00219541
                January 2017
                January 2017
                June 02 2016
                : 232
                : 1
                : 225-233
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Experimental Rheumatology; Radboud University Medical Center; Nijmegen The Netherlands
                [2 ]Department of Nutrition, Nursing School; Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais; Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
                Article
                10.1002/jcp.25414
                © 2016
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/jcp.25414

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